Overview of current detection methods and microRNA potential in Clostridioides difficile infection screening

Marco Bocchetti, Maria Grazia Ferraro, Federica Melisi, Piera Grisolia, Marianna Scrima, Alessia Maria Cossu, Tung On Yau*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
9 Downloads (Pure)


Clostridioides difficile (formerly called Clostridium difficile, C. difficile) infection (CDI) is listed as an urgent threat on the 2019 antibiotic resistance threats report in the United States by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Early detection and appropriate disease management appear to be essential. Meanwhile, although the majority of cases are hospital-acquired CDI, community-acquired CDI cases are also on the rise, and this vulnerability is not limited to immunocompromised patients. Gastrointestinal treatments and/or gastrointestinal tract surgeries may be required for patients diagnosed with digestive diseases. Such treatments could suppress or interfere with the patient’s immune system and disrupt gut flora homeostasis, creating a suitable microecosystem for C. difficile overgrowth. Currently, stool-based non-invasive screening is the first-line approach to CDI diagnosis, but the accuracy is varied due to different clinical microbiology detection methods; therefore, improving reliability is clearly required. In this review, we briefly summarised the life cycle and toxicity of C. difficile, and we examined existing diagnostic approaches with an emphasis on novel biomarkers such as microRNAs. These biomarkers can be easily detected through noninvasive liquid biopsy and can yield crucial information about ongoing pathological phenomena, particularly in CDI.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3385-3399
Number of pages15
JournalWorld Journal of Gastroenterology
Issue number22
Early online date14 Jun 2023
Publication statusFirst published - 14 Jun 2023


  • Biomarker
  • Clostridioides difficile
  • Diagnostic
  • microRNA
  • Prognostic


Dive into the research topics of 'Overview of current detection methods and microRNA potential in Clostridioides difficile infection screening'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this