Periparturient behavior and physiology: further insight into the farrowing process for primiparous and multiparous sows

SH Ison, S Jarvis, SA Hall, CJ Ashworth, KMD Rutherford

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)
1 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Giving birth is a critical time for many species and is often the most painful event ever experienced by females. In domestic species, like the pig, pain associated with parturition represents a potential welfare concern, and the consequences of pain can cause economic losses (e.g. by indirectly contributing to piglet mortality as pain could slow post-farrowing recovery, reduce food and water intake, reducing milk let-down). This study investigated pain assessment and its management in primiparous (gilts) and multiparous (sows) breeding pigs, including the provision of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) post-parturition. Individuals were randomly allocated to receive the NSAID ketoprofen (3mg/kg bodyweight) (n = 11 gilts, 16 sows) or the equivalent volume of saline (n = 13 gilts, 16 sows) by intramuscular injection 1.5 hours after the birth of the last piglet. Data collected included putative behavioral indicators of pain (back leg forward, tremble, back arch), salivary cortisol concentrations pre-farrowing and up to 7 days post-injection. In addition, post-partum biomarkers of inflammation, including the acute phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP) and 3 porcine cytokines (interleukin-1 β (IL1 β), interleukin-6 (IL6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α)) were measured in plasma collected 6 hours following the injection. Behaviors were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models, and physiological variables with linear mixed models. No difference in putative pain behaviors, salivary cortisol, CRP or cytokines were found between individuals treated with ketoprofen or those administered the saline control. However, there were some differences between gilts and sows, as sows exhibited more putative pain behavior than gilts, had higher salivary cortisol on the day of farrowing and had higher plasma TNF α. Conversely, gilts had higher salivary cortisol than sows on day 3 post farrowing and had higher CRP. This indicates that, like human females, multiparous sows experience more pain from uterine activity following birth than primiparas. This study provides useful information for developing management practices relating to post-farrowing care for breeding pigs.
Original languageEnglish
Article number122
Number of pages15
JournalFrontiers in Veterinary Science
Volume5
Issue number122
Early online date12 Jun 2018
DOIs
Publication statusFirst published - 12 Jun 2018

Fingerprint

Pain
Parturition
Hydrocortisone
Swine
C-Reactive Protein
Ketoprofen
Breeding
Linear Models
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Milk Ejection
Cytokines
Information Management
Injections
Acute-Phase Proteins
Intramuscular Injections
Pain Measurement
Back Pain
Protein C
Interleukin-1

Bibliographical note

1024993

Keywords

  • Behaviour
  • Pain assessment
  • Parturition stress
  • Physiology
  • Sow
  • Welfare

Cite this

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title = "Periparturient behavior and physiology: further insight into the farrowing process for primiparous and multiparous sows",
abstract = "Giving birth is a critical time for many species and is often the most painful event ever experienced by females. In domestic species, like the pig, pain associated with parturition represents a potential welfare concern, and the consequences of pain can cause economic losses (e.g. by indirectly contributing to piglet mortality as pain could slow post-farrowing recovery, reduce food and water intake, reducing milk let-down). This study investigated pain assessment and its management in primiparous (gilts) and multiparous (sows) breeding pigs, including the provision of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) post-parturition. Individuals were randomly allocated to receive the NSAID ketoprofen (3mg/kg bodyweight) (n = 11 gilts, 16 sows) or the equivalent volume of saline (n = 13 gilts, 16 sows) by intramuscular injection 1.5 hours after the birth of the last piglet. Data collected included putative behavioral indicators of pain (back leg forward, tremble, back arch), salivary cortisol concentrations pre-farrowing and up to 7 days post-injection. In addition, post-partum biomarkers of inflammation, including the acute phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP) and 3 porcine cytokines (interleukin-1 β (IL1 β), interleukin-6 (IL6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α)) were measured in plasma collected 6 hours following the injection. Behaviors were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models, and physiological variables with linear mixed models. No difference in putative pain behaviors, salivary cortisol, CRP or cytokines were found between individuals treated with ketoprofen or those administered the saline control. However, there were some differences between gilts and sows, as sows exhibited more putative pain behavior than gilts, had higher salivary cortisol on the day of farrowing and had higher plasma TNF α. Conversely, gilts had higher salivary cortisol than sows on day 3 post farrowing and had higher CRP. This indicates that, like human females, multiparous sows experience more pain from uterine activity following birth than primiparas. This study provides useful information for developing management practices relating to post-farrowing care for breeding pigs.",
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Periparturient behavior and physiology: further insight into the farrowing process for primiparous and multiparous sows. / Ison, SH; Jarvis, S; Hall, SA; Ashworth, CJ; Rutherford, KMD.

In: Frontiers in Veterinary Science, Vol. 5, No. 122, 122, 12.06.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Periparturient behavior and physiology: further insight into the farrowing process for primiparous and multiparous sows

AU - Ison, SH

AU - Jarvis, S

AU - Hall, SA

AU - Ashworth, CJ

AU - Rutherford, KMD

N1 - 1024993

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N2 - Giving birth is a critical time for many species and is often the most painful event ever experienced by females. In domestic species, like the pig, pain associated with parturition represents a potential welfare concern, and the consequences of pain can cause economic losses (e.g. by indirectly contributing to piglet mortality as pain could slow post-farrowing recovery, reduce food and water intake, reducing milk let-down). This study investigated pain assessment and its management in primiparous (gilts) and multiparous (sows) breeding pigs, including the provision of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) post-parturition. Individuals were randomly allocated to receive the NSAID ketoprofen (3mg/kg bodyweight) (n = 11 gilts, 16 sows) or the equivalent volume of saline (n = 13 gilts, 16 sows) by intramuscular injection 1.5 hours after the birth of the last piglet. Data collected included putative behavioral indicators of pain (back leg forward, tremble, back arch), salivary cortisol concentrations pre-farrowing and up to 7 days post-injection. In addition, post-partum biomarkers of inflammation, including the acute phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP) and 3 porcine cytokines (interleukin-1 β (IL1 β), interleukin-6 (IL6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α)) were measured in plasma collected 6 hours following the injection. Behaviors were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models, and physiological variables with linear mixed models. No difference in putative pain behaviors, salivary cortisol, CRP or cytokines were found between individuals treated with ketoprofen or those administered the saline control. However, there were some differences between gilts and sows, as sows exhibited more putative pain behavior than gilts, had higher salivary cortisol on the day of farrowing and had higher plasma TNF α. Conversely, gilts had higher salivary cortisol than sows on day 3 post farrowing and had higher CRP. This indicates that, like human females, multiparous sows experience more pain from uterine activity following birth than primiparas. This study provides useful information for developing management practices relating to post-farrowing care for breeding pigs.

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KW - Parturition stress

KW - Physiology

KW - Sow

KW - Welfare

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VL - 5

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