Polysaccharides, proteins, and synthetic polymers based multimodal hydrogels for various biomedical applications: A review

Anuj Kumar*, Ankur Sood, Garima Agrawal, Sourbh Thakur, Vijay Kumar Thakur, Masaru Tanaka, Yogendra Kumar Mishra, Graham Christie, Ebrahim Mostafavi, Rabah Boukherroub, Dietmar W Hutmacher, Sung Soo Han

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Nature-derived or biologically encouraged hydrogels have attracted considerable interest in numerous biomedical applications owing to their multidimensional utility and effectiveness. The internal architecture of a hydrogel network, the chemistry of the raw materials involved, interaction across the interface of counter ions, and the ability to mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) govern the clinical efficacy of the designed hydrogels. This review focuses on the mechanistic viewpoint of different biologically driven/inspired biomacromolecules that encourages the architectural development of hydrogel networks. In addition, the advantage of hydrogels by mimicking the ECM and the significance of the raw material selection as an indicator of bioinertness is deeply elaborated in the review. Furthermore, the article reviews and describes the application of polysaccharides, proteins, and synthetic polymer-based multimodal hydrogels inspired by or derived from nature in different biomedical areas. The review discusses the challenges and opportunities in biomaterials along with future prospects in terms of their applications in biodevices or functional components for human health issues. This review provides information on the strategy and inspiration from nature that can be used to develop a link between multimodal hydrogels as the main frame and its utility in biomedical applications as the primary target.

Original languageEnglish
Article number125606
Pages (from-to)125606
JournalInternational Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Early online date3 Jul 2023
Publication statusPrint publication - 30 Aug 2023

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  • Polysaccharides
  • Biomaterials
  • Hydrogels


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