Porphyrin-Based Nanostructures for Cancer Theranostics: Chemistry, Fundamentals and Recent Advances

Maimoona Qindeel, Saman Sargazi, Seyedeh Maryam Hosseinikhah, Abbas Rahdar*, Mahmood Barani, Vijay Kumar Thakur*, Sadanand Pandey, Razieh Mirsafaei

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)
12 Downloads (Pure)


As heterocyclic macrocycle organic compounds, porphyrins can generate a rich platform of chemical behavior and characteristics conveniently utilized for multiple bioapplications, including bio-sensors, fluorescence tracking, and in vivo imaging. The conjugation of nanotechnology and porphyrins presents a promising approach to enhance the safety and effectiveness of porphyrin-based materials in phototherapy against cancer. Several nanoformulations, including organic and inorganic nanocarriers, porphyrin-laden nanoparticles, porphyrin-based amphiphilic molecules, supramolecular polymers, and porphyrin-based block copolymers, have been investigated to deliver porphyrins, which protect the pre-mature release of photosensitizer and provide tumor-selective and site-specific targeting. The monodisperse nanoparticles formed of biocompatible building block conjugates can be beneficially used to develop a multifunctional novel system utilized in optical imaging, positron emission tomography, photodynamic therapy, photothermal therapy, and other imaging modalities in one formulation. This topic is important because exploiting and knowing porphyrin-based nanostructures aids in detecting pathological damages that cannot readily be discovered by routine imaging or physical examination and thus, helps early diagnosis of cancer. This critical review will assess the basic knowledge and updated information for a broad audience of scientists, engineers, and newcomers related to the porphyrin-based nanostructures for cancer theranostics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14082-14099
Number of pages18
Issue number48
Early online date23 Dec 2021
Publication statusPrint publication - 27 Dec 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
. Dr. Abbas Rahdar received his Ph.D. in nanoscience and nanotechnology from the nanoscience and nanotechnology research institute of the University of Kashan, Iran. The 6‐month Research Opportunity for polymeric microemulsions for drug delivery purposes at the University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain funding by the Ministry of Science and Research and Technology of the Government of Iran awarded to him in 2017. His major areas of research interest include nanoparticles synthesis and physical characterization, and biomedical applications. To date, he has authored more than 156 publications in various peer‐reviewed journals, 2 books on nanoscience and nanotechnology. He enlisted in the new list of World Top 2 % Scientists for 2020, which is compiled by Stanford University (USA) based on standardized citation indicators. It is just released: https://lnkd.in/drPHg Gb

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Wiley-VCH GmbH.


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