Preclinical data and safety assessment of phage therapy in humans

JYN Nale, Martha R.J. Clokie*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)


Bacteriophages (phages) are natural biological entities that kill bacteria with species specific precision, rendering them attractive for therapeutic purposes. Phages were discovered over a century ago, but, after antibiotic discovery, their use as antimicrobials dwindled. Interest in phage therapy has, however, been rekindled by increasing multi-drug resistance to routine and frontline antibiotics and by the slowing of antibiotic innovations. To build on fundamental phage research studies and compassionate usage, information on safety and efficacy of phages is needed to motivate clinical trials and are necessary for phage therapy to become mainstream. In this review, we discussed essential phage characterisation parameters alongside the merits and limitations of state-of-the-art models to gather preclinical data on the safety and efficacy of phage therapeutics.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)310-317
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent Opinion in Biotechnology
Publication statusPrint publication - Apr 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Bacteria
  • Bacterial Infections/therapy
  • Bacteriophages
  • Humans
  • Phage Therapy


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