Production and dose determination of the Infection and Treatment Method (ITM) Muguga cocktail vaccine used to control East Coast fever in cattle

Ekta Patel*, Stephen Mwaura, Henry Kiara, Subhash Morzaria, Andrew Peters, Philip Toye

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Infection and Treatment Method (ITM) of vaccination against the apicomplexan parasite Theileria parva has been used since the early 1970s and is still the only commercially available vaccine to combat the fatal bovine disease, East Coast fever (ECF). The disease is tick-transmitted and results in annual economic losses of at least $300 million per year. While this vaccine technology has been available for over 40 years, few attempts have been made to standardize the production process and characterize the vaccine. The latest batch was produced in early 2008 at the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI). The vaccine production involves the use of cattle free from parasites routinely monitored throughout the production process, and a pathogen-free tick colony. This paper describes the protocol used in the recent production, and the process improvements, including improved quality control tools, that had not been employed in previous ITM productions. The paper also describes the processes involved in determining the appropriate field dose, which involved a three-step in vivo study with various dilutions of the vaccine stabilate. The vaccine was shown to be safe and viable after production, and a suitable field dose was identified as 1 ml of a 1:100 dilution.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)306-314
Number of pages9
JournalTicks and Tick-borne Diseases
Volume7
Issue number2
Early online date2 Dec 2015
DOIs
Publication statusPrint publication - 1 Mar 2016

Fingerprint

Theileriasis
theileriosis
Vaccines
vaccines
cattle
dosage
Infection
infection
Ticks
ticks
Parasites
Therapeutics
Theileria parva
methodology
Cattle Diseases
parasites
cattle diseases
Livestock
in vivo studies
Quality Control

Bibliographical note

© 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved

Keywords

  • Dose determination
  • East Coast fever
  • Infection and treatment method
  • Rhipicephalus appendiculatus
  • Safety and efficacy
  • Theileria parva
  • Vaccine

Cite this

Patel, Ekta ; Mwaura, Stephen ; Kiara, Henry ; Morzaria, Subhash ; Peters, Andrew ; Toye, Philip. / Production and dose determination of the Infection and Treatment Method (ITM) Muguga cocktail vaccine used to control East Coast fever in cattle. In: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases. 2016 ; Vol. 7, No. 2. pp. 306-314.
@article{78b2adea0fae4ee3b74f2ab55f704913,
title = "Production and dose determination of the Infection and Treatment Method (ITM) Muguga cocktail vaccine used to control East Coast fever in cattle",
abstract = "The Infection and Treatment Method (ITM) of vaccination against the apicomplexan parasite Theileria parva has been used since the early 1970s and is still the only commercially available vaccine to combat the fatal bovine disease, East Coast fever (ECF). The disease is tick-transmitted and results in annual economic losses of at least $300 million per year. While this vaccine technology has been available for over 40 years, few attempts have been made to standardize the production process and characterize the vaccine. The latest batch was produced in early 2008 at the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI). The vaccine production involves the use of cattle free from parasites routinely monitored throughout the production process, and a pathogen-free tick colony. This paper describes the protocol used in the recent production, and the process improvements, including improved quality control tools, that had not been employed in previous ITM productions. The paper also describes the processes involved in determining the appropriate field dose, which involved a three-step in vivo study with various dilutions of the vaccine stabilate. The vaccine was shown to be safe and viable after production, and a suitable field dose was identified as 1 ml of a 1:100 dilution.",
keywords = "Dose determination, East Coast fever, Infection and treatment method, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Safety and efficacy, Theileria parva, Vaccine",
author = "Ekta Patel and Stephen Mwaura and Henry Kiara and Subhash Morzaria and Andrew Peters and Philip Toye",
note = "{\circledC} 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved",
year = "2016",
month = "3",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.ttbdis.2015.11.006",
language = "English",
volume = "7",
pages = "306--314",
journal = "Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases",
issn = "1877-959X",
publisher = "Elsevier GmbH",
number = "2",

}

Production and dose determination of the Infection and Treatment Method (ITM) Muguga cocktail vaccine used to control East Coast fever in cattle. / Patel, Ekta; Mwaura, Stephen; Kiara, Henry; Morzaria, Subhash; Peters, Andrew; Toye, Philip.

In: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, Vol. 7, No. 2, 01.03.2016, p. 306-314.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Production and dose determination of the Infection and Treatment Method (ITM) Muguga cocktail vaccine used to control East Coast fever in cattle

AU - Patel, Ekta

AU - Mwaura, Stephen

AU - Kiara, Henry

AU - Morzaria, Subhash

AU - Peters, Andrew

AU - Toye, Philip

N1 - © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved

PY - 2016/3/1

Y1 - 2016/3/1

N2 - The Infection and Treatment Method (ITM) of vaccination against the apicomplexan parasite Theileria parva has been used since the early 1970s and is still the only commercially available vaccine to combat the fatal bovine disease, East Coast fever (ECF). The disease is tick-transmitted and results in annual economic losses of at least $300 million per year. While this vaccine technology has been available for over 40 years, few attempts have been made to standardize the production process and characterize the vaccine. The latest batch was produced in early 2008 at the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI). The vaccine production involves the use of cattle free from parasites routinely monitored throughout the production process, and a pathogen-free tick colony. This paper describes the protocol used in the recent production, and the process improvements, including improved quality control tools, that had not been employed in previous ITM productions. The paper also describes the processes involved in determining the appropriate field dose, which involved a three-step in vivo study with various dilutions of the vaccine stabilate. The vaccine was shown to be safe and viable after production, and a suitable field dose was identified as 1 ml of a 1:100 dilution.

AB - The Infection and Treatment Method (ITM) of vaccination against the apicomplexan parasite Theileria parva has been used since the early 1970s and is still the only commercially available vaccine to combat the fatal bovine disease, East Coast fever (ECF). The disease is tick-transmitted and results in annual economic losses of at least $300 million per year. While this vaccine technology has been available for over 40 years, few attempts have been made to standardize the production process and characterize the vaccine. The latest batch was produced in early 2008 at the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI). The vaccine production involves the use of cattle free from parasites routinely monitored throughout the production process, and a pathogen-free tick colony. This paper describes the protocol used in the recent production, and the process improvements, including improved quality control tools, that had not been employed in previous ITM productions. The paper also describes the processes involved in determining the appropriate field dose, which involved a three-step in vivo study with various dilutions of the vaccine stabilate. The vaccine was shown to be safe and viable after production, and a suitable field dose was identified as 1 ml of a 1:100 dilution.

KW - Dose determination

KW - East Coast fever

KW - Infection and treatment method

KW - Rhipicephalus appendiculatus

KW - Safety and efficacy

KW - Theileria parva

KW - Vaccine

U2 - 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2015.11.006

DO - 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2015.11.006

M3 - Article

C2 - 26698194

AN - SCOPUS:84958910564

VL - 7

SP - 306

EP - 314

JO - Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases

JF - Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases

SN - 1877-959X

IS - 2

ER -