Quantum Dots: Synthesis, Antibody Conjugation, and HER2-Receptor Targeting for Breast Cancer Therapy

Iqra Fatima, Abbas Rahdar*, Saman Sargazi, Mahmood Barani, Mohadeseh Hassanisaadi, Vijay Kumar Thakur*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)
56 Downloads (Pure)


Breast cancer is becoming one of the main lethal carcinomas in the recent era, and its occurrence rate is increasing day by day. There are different breast cancer biomarkers, and their overexpression takes place in the metastasis of cancer cells. The most prevalent breast cancer biomarker is the human epidermal growth factor receptor2 (HER2). As this biomarker is overexpressed in malignant breast tissues, it has become the main focus in targeted therapies to fight breast cancer. There is a cascade of mechanisms involved in metastasis and cell proliferation in cancer cells. Nanotechnology has become extremely advanced in targeting and imaging cancerous cells. Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor NPs, and they are used for bioimaging, biolabeling, and biosensing. They are synthesized by different approaches such as top-down, bottom-up, and synthetic methods. Fully human monoclonal antibodies synthesized using transgenic mice having human immunoglobulin are used to target malignant cells. For the HER2 receptor, herceptin® (trastuzumab) is the most specific antibody (Ab), and it is conjugated with QDs by using different types of coupling mechanisms. This quantum dot monoclonal antibody (QD-mAb) conjugate is localized by injecting it into the blood vessel. After the injection, it goes through a series of steps to reach the intracellular space, and bioimaging of specifically the HER2 receptor occurs, where apoptosis of the cancer cells takes place either by the liberation of Ab or the free radicals.
Original languageEnglish
Article number75
JournalJournal of Functional Biomaterials
Issue number4
Early online date16 Dec 2021
Publication statusPrint publication - Dec 2021


  • breast cancer
  • HER2 receptor
  • quantum dots
  • monoclonal antibodies
  • quantum dot–antibody conjugate
  • Quantum dots
  • Monoclonal antibodies
  • Breast cancer
  • Quantum dot– antibody conjugate


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