Water pollution and energy crises are major problems for the sustainability of the modern world. Solar energy–driven photocatalysis technique is a promising environmental remediation approach. Multivariate metal-organic frameworks (MTV-MOFs) have recently emerged as an exciting class of crystalline materials with flexible tunability in porous structure and composition, rich topology, enhanced surface area, and broad visible-light absorption. The modularity of MOFs can be achieved by altering metal clusters and carbon-containing organic linkers in orderly repeating two- or three-dimensional arrangement. This review presents a discussion on recent advances in MTV-MOFs–based photocatalysis targeted for pollutant degradation, CO 2 reduction, and water splitting. The advantages of MTV-MOFs for diverse photocatalytic applications include structural modulation, functionalized adjustability, and synthesis selectivity of mixed-linker/metal (ML/MM) coordinative bonds. The synthesis methodologies, that is, one-step and postsynthetic routes, have been elaborated for ML/MM MOFs to obtain improved photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic mechanism, followed by MTV-MOFs heterostructures with metal oxides or carbonaceous semiconductors, was discussed in detail. The discussion is concentrated on structural and topological features via self-assemble of linkers and metal ions in ML/MM MOFs. The future research area should select suitable metal ions/linkers, rational synthesis, and appropriate photocatalytic mechanism of orderly MTV-MOFs.
- Multivariate MOFs
- mixed linker/mixed-metal MOFs
- Pollutant degradation
- CO2 reduction
- Water splitting
- CO reduction
- Mixed-linker/mixed-metal MOFs