Recovery processes of sustainable energy using different biomass and wastes

Samarjeet Singh Siwal, Qibo Zhang, Nishu Devi, Adesh Kumar Saini, Vipin Saini, Bhawna Pareek, Sergejs Gaidukovs, Vijay Kumar Thakur*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

98 Citations (Scopus)


The biomass ‘waste-to-energy theory transforms low-value biomass within value-added outputs which include high financial potential has drawn awareness from both academicians and enterprise professionals. The biomass waste administration method involves the production, chamber, acquisition, transferal, and conveyor, processing, and distribution of all classes of trash. However, most of these methods are yet under the growing state and attempting to acquire a business partly due to several hurdles, such as proper infrastructure, feedstock, technological conditions, administration management, and communal recognition. Recently, thermochemical methods towards agricultural biomass to power conversion appear encouraging and achievable. The comparative benefit of thermochemical transformation above others is higher potency and adaptability among subsisting infrastructure tools. These advantages differ by method and final product, presenting compliance in matching market necessities. Advantages include environmental change: upon a life-cycle base, high-level biofuels generated through thermochemical transformation could decrease greenhouse gases by around 50% or higher than traditional gasoline. In this article, a comprehensive report on the advancement of the five most encouraging ways of thermochemical transformation (i.e. incineration, pyrolysis, gasification, plasma, and torrefaction), three ways of biochemical renovation (i.e. composting, bioethanol fermentation and anaerobic digestion) and landfill methane capture have been discussed. The modern evolution of several conversion technologies for biomass regeneration has also been examined and benchmarked towards global development. Additionally, the core scientific hurdles in profiting these green pieces of machinery are emphasized.

Original languageEnglish
Article number111483
JournalRenewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Early online date17 Jul 2021
Publication statusPrint publication - Oct 2021


  • Anaerobic digestion
  • Biochemical conversion
  • Biomass waste
  • Landfill methane capture
  • Sustainable energy
  • Thermochemical conversion


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