Reducing soil erosion in smallholder farming systems in east Africa through the introduction of different crop types

Tarirai Muoni*, Eric Koomson, Ingrid Öborn, Carsten Marohn, CA Watson, Göran Bergkvist, AP Barnes, Georg Cadisch, Alan Duncan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

On low-input smallholder farms of Kenyan upland landscapes, erosion of nutrient rich topsoil strongly affects crop yields. Where maize (Zea mays) is intercropped on erosion-prone slopes, intercropping can potentially reduce soil erosion. The objective of this research was to quantify the contribution of crops and crop mixtures of different growth habits to erosion control and their influence on above ground biomass and earthworm abundance as indicators of soil function in smallholder farming systems under a bimodal rainfall pattern in Western Kenya. The experiment involved five treatments, namely maize (Zea mays)/common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) intercrop (maize intercrop), maize/common bean intercrop plus Calliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus) hedgerows and Calliandra mulch (Calliandra), sole Lablab (Lablab
purpureus), sole Mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea)
intercropped with maize (during the short rains). The experiment was conducted over three consecutive cropping seasons and the cropping system had significant effects on soil loss, runoff, water infiltration, earthworm abundance and above ground biomass and crop grain yield. The Calliandra treatment had the lowest runoff (11.6 – 17.2 mm ha-1) and soil erosion (31– 446 kg ha-1, per season) in all the seasons, followed by the Mucuna treatment. Lablab was affected by disease and showed the highest soil erosion in the last two seasons. Infiltration was highest in Calliandra treatment, and earthworm abundance was higher under Mucuna and Calliandra treatments (229 and 165 earthworms m-2, respectively) than under other crops. Our results suggest that including sole crops of herbaceous species such as Mucuna, or tree hedgerows with mixtures of maize and grain legumes has the potential to reduce runoff and soil erosion
in smallholder farming. Additionally, these species provide a suitable habitat for
earthworms which stabilize soil structure and macropores and thus potentially increase infiltration, further reducing soil erosion.
Original languageEnglish
JournalExperimental Agriculture
Early online date17 Sep 2019
DOIs
Publication statusFirst published - 17 Sep 2019

Fingerprint

Calliandra
small-scale farming
Eastern Africa
soil erosion
Mucuna
farming systems
earthworms
corn
crops
Lablab
infiltration (hydrology)
runoff
aboveground biomass
crop yield
beans
Zea mays
Calliandra calothyrsus
Mucuna pruriens
rain
seed mixtures

Keywords

  • Calliandra
  • Infiltration
  • Intercropping
  • Legumes
  • Mucuna
  • Runoff

Cite this

Muoni, Tarirai ; Koomson, Eric ; Öborn, Ingrid ; Marohn, Carsten ; Watson, CA ; Bergkvist, Göran ; Barnes, AP ; Cadisch, Georg ; Duncan, Alan. / Reducing soil erosion in smallholder farming systems in east Africa through the introduction of different crop types. In: Experimental Agriculture. 2019.
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abstract = "On low-input smallholder farms of Kenyan upland landscapes, erosion of nutrient rich topsoil strongly affects crop yields. Where maize (Zea mays) is intercropped on erosion-prone slopes, intercropping can potentially reduce soil erosion. The objective of this research was to quantify the contribution of crops and crop mixtures of different growth habits to erosion control and their influence on above ground biomass and earthworm abundance as indicators of soil function in smallholder farming systems under a bimodal rainfall pattern in Western Kenya. The experiment involved five treatments, namely maize (Zea mays)/common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) intercrop (maize intercrop), maize/common bean intercrop plus Calliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus) hedgerows and Calliandra mulch (Calliandra), sole Lablab (Lablabpurpureus), sole Mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea)intercropped with maize (during the short rains). The experiment was conducted over three consecutive cropping seasons and the cropping system had significant effects on soil loss, runoff, water infiltration, earthworm abundance and above ground biomass and crop grain yield. The Calliandra treatment had the lowest runoff (11.6 – 17.2 mm ha-1) and soil erosion (31– 446 kg ha-1, per season) in all the seasons, followed by the Mucuna treatment. Lablab was affected by disease and showed the highest soil erosion in the last two seasons. Infiltration was highest in Calliandra treatment, and earthworm abundance was higher under Mucuna and Calliandra treatments (229 and 165 earthworms m-2, respectively) than under other crops. Our results suggest that including sole crops of herbaceous species such as Mucuna, or tree hedgerows with mixtures of maize and grain legumes has the potential to reduce runoff and soil erosionin smallholder farming. Additionally, these species provide a suitable habitat forearthworms which stabilize soil structure and macropores and thus potentially increase infiltration, further reducing soil erosion.",
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Reducing soil erosion in smallholder farming systems in east Africa through the introduction of different crop types. / Muoni, Tarirai; Koomson, Eric; Öborn, Ingrid ; Marohn, Carsten; Watson, CA; Bergkvist, Göran; Barnes, AP; Cadisch, Georg; Duncan, Alan.

In: Experimental Agriculture, 17.09.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Koomson, Eric

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AU - Duncan, Alan

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N2 - On low-input smallholder farms of Kenyan upland landscapes, erosion of nutrient rich topsoil strongly affects crop yields. Where maize (Zea mays) is intercropped on erosion-prone slopes, intercropping can potentially reduce soil erosion. The objective of this research was to quantify the contribution of crops and crop mixtures of different growth habits to erosion control and their influence on above ground biomass and earthworm abundance as indicators of soil function in smallholder farming systems under a bimodal rainfall pattern in Western Kenya. The experiment involved five treatments, namely maize (Zea mays)/common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) intercrop (maize intercrop), maize/common bean intercrop plus Calliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus) hedgerows and Calliandra mulch (Calliandra), sole Lablab (Lablabpurpureus), sole Mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea)intercropped with maize (during the short rains). The experiment was conducted over three consecutive cropping seasons and the cropping system had significant effects on soil loss, runoff, water infiltration, earthworm abundance and above ground biomass and crop grain yield. The Calliandra treatment had the lowest runoff (11.6 – 17.2 mm ha-1) and soil erosion (31– 446 kg ha-1, per season) in all the seasons, followed by the Mucuna treatment. Lablab was affected by disease and showed the highest soil erosion in the last two seasons. Infiltration was highest in Calliandra treatment, and earthworm abundance was higher under Mucuna and Calliandra treatments (229 and 165 earthworms m-2, respectively) than under other crops. Our results suggest that including sole crops of herbaceous species such as Mucuna, or tree hedgerows with mixtures of maize and grain legumes has the potential to reduce runoff and soil erosionin smallholder farming. Additionally, these species provide a suitable habitat forearthworms which stabilize soil structure and macropores and thus potentially increase infiltration, further reducing soil erosion.

AB - On low-input smallholder farms of Kenyan upland landscapes, erosion of nutrient rich topsoil strongly affects crop yields. Where maize (Zea mays) is intercropped on erosion-prone slopes, intercropping can potentially reduce soil erosion. The objective of this research was to quantify the contribution of crops and crop mixtures of different growth habits to erosion control and their influence on above ground biomass and earthworm abundance as indicators of soil function in smallholder farming systems under a bimodal rainfall pattern in Western Kenya. The experiment involved five treatments, namely maize (Zea mays)/common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) intercrop (maize intercrop), maize/common bean intercrop plus Calliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus) hedgerows and Calliandra mulch (Calliandra), sole Lablab (Lablabpurpureus), sole Mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea)intercropped with maize (during the short rains). The experiment was conducted over three consecutive cropping seasons and the cropping system had significant effects on soil loss, runoff, water infiltration, earthworm abundance and above ground biomass and crop grain yield. The Calliandra treatment had the lowest runoff (11.6 – 17.2 mm ha-1) and soil erosion (31– 446 kg ha-1, per season) in all the seasons, followed by the Mucuna treatment. Lablab was affected by disease and showed the highest soil erosion in the last two seasons. Infiltration was highest in Calliandra treatment, and earthworm abundance was higher under Mucuna and Calliandra treatments (229 and 165 earthworms m-2, respectively) than under other crops. Our results suggest that including sole crops of herbaceous species such as Mucuna, or tree hedgerows with mixtures of maize and grain legumes has the potential to reduce runoff and soil erosionin smallholder farming. Additionally, these species provide a suitable habitat forearthworms which stabilize soil structure and macropores and thus potentially increase infiltration, further reducing soil erosion.

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