Responses of rice paddy micro-food webs to elevated CO2 are modulated by nitrogen fertilization and crop cultivars

Z Hu, C Zhu, X Chen, M Bonkowski, BS Griffiths, F Chen, J Zhu, S Hu, F Hu, M Liu

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Abstract

Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (eCO2) often increase plant growth but simultaneously lead to the nitrogen (N) limitation in soil. The corresponding mitigation strategy such as supplementing N fertilizer and growing high-yielding cultivars at eCO2 would further modify soil ecosystem structure and function. Little attention has, however, been directed toward assessing the responses of soil food web. We report results from a long-term free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment in a rice paddy agroecosystem that examined the responses of soil micro-food webs to eCO2 and exogenous nitrogen fertilization (eN) in the rhizosphere of two rice cultivars with distinctly weak and strong responses to eCO2. Soil micro-food web parameters, including microfauna (protists and nematodes) and soil microbes (bacteria and fungi from phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis), as well as soil C and N variables, were determined at the heading and ripening stages of rice. Results showed that eCO2 effects on soil micro-food webs depended strongly on N fertilization, rice cultivar and growth stage. eCO2 stimulated the fungal energy channel at the ripening stage, as evidenced by increases in fungal biomass (32%), fungi:bacteria ratio (18%) and the abundance of fungivorous nematodes (64%), mainly due to an enhanced carbon input. The eN fueled the bacterial energy channel by increasing the abundance of flagellates and bacterivorous nematodes, likely through alleviating the N-limitation of plants and rhizosphere under eCO2. While eCO2 decreased the abundance of herbivorous nematodes under the weak-responsive cultivar by 59% and 47% with eN at the heading and ripening stage, respectively, the numbers of herbivorous nematodes almost tripled (×2.9; heading) and doubled (×1.6; ripening) under the strong-responsive cultivar with eCO2 at eN due to higher root quantity and quality. Structural equation model (SEM) showed that lower trophic-level organisms were affected by bottom-up forces of altered soil resources induced by eCO2 and eN, and effects on higher trophic level organisms were driven by bottom-up cascades with 69% of the variation being explained. Taken together, strategies to adapt climate change by growing high-yielding crop cultivars under eCO2 may face a trade-off by negative soil feedbacks through the accumulation of root-feeding crop pest species.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)104 - 113
Number of pages10
JournalSoil Biology & Biochemistry
Volume114
Early online date17 Jul 2017
DOIs
Publication statusFirst published - 17 Jul 2017

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paddies
food webs
carbon dioxide
Nematoda
cultivars
ripening
nitrogen
crops
heading
soil
rice
rhizosphere
soil food webs
plant pests
fungi
high-yielding varieties
soil resources
bacteria
organisms
energy

Bibliographical note

1031409
1031390

Keywords

  • Crop cultivar
  • Global change
  • Rhizosphere
  • Root microbiome
  • Soil fauna
  • Soil food webs

Cite this

Hu, Z ; Zhu, C ; Chen, X ; Bonkowski, M ; Griffiths, BS ; Chen, F ; Zhu, J ; Hu, S ; Hu, F ; Liu, M. / Responses of rice paddy micro-food webs to elevated CO2 are modulated by nitrogen fertilization and crop cultivars. In: Soil Biology & Biochemistry. 2017 ; Vol. 114. pp. 104 - 113.
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abstract = "Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (eCO2) often increase plant growth but simultaneously lead to the nitrogen (N) limitation in soil. The corresponding mitigation strategy such as supplementing N fertilizer and growing high-yielding cultivars at eCO2 would further modify soil ecosystem structure and function. Little attention has, however, been directed toward assessing the responses of soil food web. We report results from a long-term free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment in a rice paddy agroecosystem that examined the responses of soil micro-food webs to eCO2 and exogenous nitrogen fertilization (eN) in the rhizosphere of two rice cultivars with distinctly weak and strong responses to eCO2. Soil micro-food web parameters, including microfauna (protists and nematodes) and soil microbes (bacteria and fungi from phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis), as well as soil C and N variables, were determined at the heading and ripening stages of rice. Results showed that eCO2 effects on soil micro-food webs depended strongly on N fertilization, rice cultivar and growth stage. eCO2 stimulated the fungal energy channel at the ripening stage, as evidenced by increases in fungal biomass (32{\%}), fungi:bacteria ratio (18{\%}) and the abundance of fungivorous nematodes (64{\%}), mainly due to an enhanced carbon input. The eN fueled the bacterial energy channel by increasing the abundance of flagellates and bacterivorous nematodes, likely through alleviating the N-limitation of plants and rhizosphere under eCO2. While eCO2 decreased the abundance of herbivorous nematodes under the weak-responsive cultivar by 59{\%} and 47{\%} with eN at the heading and ripening stage, respectively, the numbers of herbivorous nematodes almost tripled (×2.9; heading) and doubled (×1.6; ripening) under the strong-responsive cultivar with eCO2 at eN due to higher root quantity and quality. Structural equation model (SEM) showed that lower trophic-level organisms were affected by bottom-up forces of altered soil resources induced by eCO2 and eN, and effects on higher trophic level organisms were driven by bottom-up cascades with 69{\%} of the variation being explained. Taken together, strategies to adapt climate change by growing high-yielding crop cultivars under eCO2 may face a trade-off by negative soil feedbacks through the accumulation of root-feeding crop pest species.",
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Hu, Z, Zhu, C, Chen, X, Bonkowski, M, Griffiths, BS, Chen, F, Zhu, J, Hu, S, Hu, F & Liu, M 2017, 'Responses of rice paddy micro-food webs to elevated CO2 are modulated by nitrogen fertilization and crop cultivars', Soil Biology & Biochemistry, vol. 114, pp. 104 - 113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2017.07.008

Responses of rice paddy micro-food webs to elevated CO2 are modulated by nitrogen fertilization and crop cultivars. / Hu, Z; Zhu, C; Chen, X; Bonkowski, M; Griffiths, BS; Chen, F; Zhu, J; Hu, S; Hu, F; Liu, M.

In: Soil Biology & Biochemistry, Vol. 114, 17.07.2017, p. 104 - 113.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Responses of rice paddy micro-food webs to elevated CO2 are modulated by nitrogen fertilization and crop cultivars

AU - Hu, Z

AU - Zhu, C

AU - Chen, X

AU - Bonkowski, M

AU - Griffiths, BS

AU - Chen, F

AU - Zhu, J

AU - Hu, S

AU - Hu, F

AU - Liu, M

N1 - 1031409 1031390

PY - 2017/7/17

Y1 - 2017/7/17

N2 - Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (eCO2) often increase plant growth but simultaneously lead to the nitrogen (N) limitation in soil. The corresponding mitigation strategy such as supplementing N fertilizer and growing high-yielding cultivars at eCO2 would further modify soil ecosystem structure and function. Little attention has, however, been directed toward assessing the responses of soil food web. We report results from a long-term free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment in a rice paddy agroecosystem that examined the responses of soil micro-food webs to eCO2 and exogenous nitrogen fertilization (eN) in the rhizosphere of two rice cultivars with distinctly weak and strong responses to eCO2. Soil micro-food web parameters, including microfauna (protists and nematodes) and soil microbes (bacteria and fungi from phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis), as well as soil C and N variables, were determined at the heading and ripening stages of rice. Results showed that eCO2 effects on soil micro-food webs depended strongly on N fertilization, rice cultivar and growth stage. eCO2 stimulated the fungal energy channel at the ripening stage, as evidenced by increases in fungal biomass (32%), fungi:bacteria ratio (18%) and the abundance of fungivorous nematodes (64%), mainly due to an enhanced carbon input. The eN fueled the bacterial energy channel by increasing the abundance of flagellates and bacterivorous nematodes, likely through alleviating the N-limitation of plants and rhizosphere under eCO2. While eCO2 decreased the abundance of herbivorous nematodes under the weak-responsive cultivar by 59% and 47% with eN at the heading and ripening stage, respectively, the numbers of herbivorous nematodes almost tripled (×2.9; heading) and doubled (×1.6; ripening) under the strong-responsive cultivar with eCO2 at eN due to higher root quantity and quality. Structural equation model (SEM) showed that lower trophic-level organisms were affected by bottom-up forces of altered soil resources induced by eCO2 and eN, and effects on higher trophic level organisms were driven by bottom-up cascades with 69% of the variation being explained. Taken together, strategies to adapt climate change by growing high-yielding crop cultivars under eCO2 may face a trade-off by negative soil feedbacks through the accumulation of root-feeding crop pest species.

AB - Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (eCO2) often increase plant growth but simultaneously lead to the nitrogen (N) limitation in soil. The corresponding mitigation strategy such as supplementing N fertilizer and growing high-yielding cultivars at eCO2 would further modify soil ecosystem structure and function. Little attention has, however, been directed toward assessing the responses of soil food web. We report results from a long-term free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment in a rice paddy agroecosystem that examined the responses of soil micro-food webs to eCO2 and exogenous nitrogen fertilization (eN) in the rhizosphere of two rice cultivars with distinctly weak and strong responses to eCO2. Soil micro-food web parameters, including microfauna (protists and nematodes) and soil microbes (bacteria and fungi from phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis), as well as soil C and N variables, were determined at the heading and ripening stages of rice. Results showed that eCO2 effects on soil micro-food webs depended strongly on N fertilization, rice cultivar and growth stage. eCO2 stimulated the fungal energy channel at the ripening stage, as evidenced by increases in fungal biomass (32%), fungi:bacteria ratio (18%) and the abundance of fungivorous nematodes (64%), mainly due to an enhanced carbon input. The eN fueled the bacterial energy channel by increasing the abundance of flagellates and bacterivorous nematodes, likely through alleviating the N-limitation of plants and rhizosphere under eCO2. While eCO2 decreased the abundance of herbivorous nematodes under the weak-responsive cultivar by 59% and 47% with eN at the heading and ripening stage, respectively, the numbers of herbivorous nematodes almost tripled (×2.9; heading) and doubled (×1.6; ripening) under the strong-responsive cultivar with eCO2 at eN due to higher root quantity and quality. Structural equation model (SEM) showed that lower trophic-level organisms were affected by bottom-up forces of altered soil resources induced by eCO2 and eN, and effects on higher trophic level organisms were driven by bottom-up cascades with 69% of the variation being explained. Taken together, strategies to adapt climate change by growing high-yielding crop cultivars under eCO2 may face a trade-off by negative soil feedbacks through the accumulation of root-feeding crop pest species.

KW - Crop cultivar

KW - Global change

KW - Rhizosphere

KW - Root microbiome

KW - Soil fauna

KW - Soil food webs

U2 - 10.1016/j.soilbio.2017.07.008

DO - 10.1016/j.soilbio.2017.07.008

M3 - Article

VL - 114

SP - 104

EP - 113

JO - Soil Biology and Biochemistry

JF - Soil Biology and Biochemistry

SN - 0038-0717

ER -