Rumen protozoa are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids due to the ingestion of chloroplasts

Sharon A Huws, Eun J Kim, Alison H Kingston-Smith, Michael R F Lee, Stefan M Muetzel, Alan R Cookson, Charles J Newbold, R John Wallace, Nigel D Scollan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Within this study, we investigated whether the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-rich nature of rumen protozoa is a consequence of ingestion of PUFA-rich chloroplasts. Four Hereford x Friesian steers were offered hay [low 18:3 (n-3) and low chlorophyll concentration] followed by freshly cut perennial ryegrass [high 18:3 (n-3) and high chlorophyll concentration] for 16 days. On the 14th and 16th days, rumen protozoa as well as attached and planktonic bacteria were fractionated 1 h before (-1 h), 2 and 6 h postfeeding, and their fatty acid concentrations determined. Protozoa fractionated from fresh grass-fed steers were richer (P<0.05) in PUFA, except conjugated linoleic acid, for all time points compared with those from hay-fed steers. Protozoal density was higher (P<0.05) for grass compared with hay. Entodinomorphid abundance was 3.4 times higher on fresh grass (P<0.01) compared with hay. Confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that Epidinium spp. were commonly saturated with intracellular cytoplasmic chloroplasts. These data suggest that engulfment of chloroplasts is a major contributor to the high 18:3 (n-3) concentration of protozoa.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)461-71
Number of pages11
JournalFEMS Microbiology Ecology
Volume69
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPrint publication - Sep 2009
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Rumen
hay
Chloroplasts
Poaceae
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
chloroplast
fatty acid
Eating
Chlorophyll
grass
Conjugated Linoleic Acids
Lolium
chlorophyll
Transmission Electron Microscopy
Confocal Microscopy
Fatty Acids
Bacteria
transmission electron microscopy
microscopy
bacterium

Keywords

  • Animal Feed/analysis
  • Animals
  • Bacteria/genetics
  • Cattle
  • Chlorophyll/metabolism
  • Chloroplasts/metabolism
  • DNA, Bacterial/genetics
  • DNA, Protozoan/genetics
  • Eukaryota/genetics
  • Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/metabolism
  • Male
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics
  • Rumen/microbiology

Cite this

Huws, S. A., Kim, E. J., Kingston-Smith, A. H., Lee, M. R. F., Muetzel, S. M., Cookson, A. R., ... Scollan, N. D. (2009). Rumen protozoa are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids due to the ingestion of chloroplasts. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 69(3), 461-71. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6941.2009.00717.x
Huws, Sharon A ; Kim, Eun J ; Kingston-Smith, Alison H ; Lee, Michael R F ; Muetzel, Stefan M ; Cookson, Alan R ; Newbold, Charles J ; Wallace, R John ; Scollan, Nigel D. / Rumen protozoa are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids due to the ingestion of chloroplasts. In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 2009 ; Vol. 69, No. 3. pp. 461-71.
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abstract = "Within this study, we investigated whether the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-rich nature of rumen protozoa is a consequence of ingestion of PUFA-rich chloroplasts. Four Hereford x Friesian steers were offered hay [low 18:3 (n-3) and low chlorophyll concentration] followed by freshly cut perennial ryegrass [high 18:3 (n-3) and high chlorophyll concentration] for 16 days. On the 14th and 16th days, rumen protozoa as well as attached and planktonic bacteria were fractionated 1 h before (-1 h), 2 and 6 h postfeeding, and their fatty acid concentrations determined. Protozoa fractionated from fresh grass-fed steers were richer (P<0.05) in PUFA, except conjugated linoleic acid, for all time points compared with those from hay-fed steers. Protozoal density was higher (P<0.05) for grass compared with hay. Entodinomorphid abundance was 3.4 times higher on fresh grass (P<0.01) compared with hay. Confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that Epidinium spp. were commonly saturated with intracellular cytoplasmic chloroplasts. These data suggest that engulfment of chloroplasts is a major contributor to the high 18:3 (n-3) concentration of protozoa.",
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Huws, SA, Kim, EJ, Kingston-Smith, AH, Lee, MRF, Muetzel, SM, Cookson, AR, Newbold, CJ, Wallace, RJ & Scollan, ND 2009, 'Rumen protozoa are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids due to the ingestion of chloroplasts', FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 461-71. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6941.2009.00717.x

Rumen protozoa are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids due to the ingestion of chloroplasts. / Huws, Sharon A; Kim, Eun J; Kingston-Smith, Alison H; Lee, Michael R F; Muetzel, Stefan M; Cookson, Alan R; Newbold, Charles J; Wallace, R John; Scollan, Nigel D.

In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, Vol. 69, No. 3, 09.2009, p. 461-71.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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T1 - Rumen protozoa are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids due to the ingestion of chloroplasts

AU - Huws, Sharon A

AU - Kim, Eun J

AU - Kingston-Smith, Alison H

AU - Lee, Michael R F

AU - Muetzel, Stefan M

AU - Cookson, Alan R

AU - Newbold, Charles J

AU - Wallace, R John

AU - Scollan, Nigel D

PY - 2009/9

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N2 - Within this study, we investigated whether the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-rich nature of rumen protozoa is a consequence of ingestion of PUFA-rich chloroplasts. Four Hereford x Friesian steers were offered hay [low 18:3 (n-3) and low chlorophyll concentration] followed by freshly cut perennial ryegrass [high 18:3 (n-3) and high chlorophyll concentration] for 16 days. On the 14th and 16th days, rumen protozoa as well as attached and planktonic bacteria were fractionated 1 h before (-1 h), 2 and 6 h postfeeding, and their fatty acid concentrations determined. Protozoa fractionated from fresh grass-fed steers were richer (P<0.05) in PUFA, except conjugated linoleic acid, for all time points compared with those from hay-fed steers. Protozoal density was higher (P<0.05) for grass compared with hay. Entodinomorphid abundance was 3.4 times higher on fresh grass (P<0.01) compared with hay. Confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that Epidinium spp. were commonly saturated with intracellular cytoplasmic chloroplasts. These data suggest that engulfment of chloroplasts is a major contributor to the high 18:3 (n-3) concentration of protozoa.

AB - Within this study, we investigated whether the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-rich nature of rumen protozoa is a consequence of ingestion of PUFA-rich chloroplasts. Four Hereford x Friesian steers were offered hay [low 18:3 (n-3) and low chlorophyll concentration] followed by freshly cut perennial ryegrass [high 18:3 (n-3) and high chlorophyll concentration] for 16 days. On the 14th and 16th days, rumen protozoa as well as attached and planktonic bacteria were fractionated 1 h before (-1 h), 2 and 6 h postfeeding, and their fatty acid concentrations determined. Protozoa fractionated from fresh grass-fed steers were richer (P<0.05) in PUFA, except conjugated linoleic acid, for all time points compared with those from hay-fed steers. Protozoal density was higher (P<0.05) for grass compared with hay. Entodinomorphid abundance was 3.4 times higher on fresh grass (P<0.01) compared with hay. Confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that Epidinium spp. were commonly saturated with intracellular cytoplasmic chloroplasts. These data suggest that engulfment of chloroplasts is a major contributor to the high 18:3 (n-3) concentration of protozoa.

KW - Animal Feed/analysis

KW - Animals

KW - Bacteria/genetics

KW - Cattle

KW - Chlorophyll/metabolism

KW - Chloroplasts/metabolism

KW - DNA, Bacterial/genetics

KW - DNA, Protozoan/genetics

KW - Eukaryota/genetics

KW - Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/metabolism

KW - Male

KW - RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics

KW - RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics

KW - Rumen/microbiology

U2 - 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2009.00717.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2009.00717.x

M3 - Article

VL - 69

SP - 461

EP - 471

JO - FEMS Microbiology Ecology

JF - FEMS Microbiology Ecology

SN - 0168-6496

IS - 3

ER -