Significance of an Electrochemical Sensor and Nanocomposites: Toward the Electrocatalytic Detection of Neurotransmitters and Their Importance within the Physiological System

Harjot Kaur, Samarjeet Singh Siwal, Reena V. Saini, Nirankar Singh, Vijay Kumar Thakur

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

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Abstract

A prominent neurotransmitter (NT), dopamine (DA), is a chemical messenger that transmits signals between one neuron to the next to pass on a signal to and from the central nervous system (CNS). The imbalanced concentration of DA may cause numerous neurological sicknesses and syndromes, for example, Parkinson’s disease (PD) and schizophrenia. There are many types of NTs in the brain, including epinephrine, norepinephrine (NE), serotonin, and glutamate. Electrochemical sensors have offered a creative direction to biomedical analysis and testing. Researches are in progress to improve the performance of sensors and develop new protocols for sensor design. This review article focuses on the area of sensor growth to discover the applicability of polymers and metallic particles and composite materials as tools in electrochemical sensor surface incorporation. Electrochemical sensors have attracted the attention of researchers as they possess high sensitivity, quick reaction rate, good controllability, and instantaneous detection. Efficient complex materials provide considerable benefits for biological detection as they have exclusive chemical and physical properties. Due to distinctive electrocatalytic characteristics, metallic nanoparticles add fascinating traits to materials that depend on the material’s morphology and size. Herein, we have collected much information on NTs and their importance within the physiological system. Furthermore, the electrochemical sensors and corresponding techniques (such as voltammetric, amperometry, impedance, and chronoamperometry) and the different types of electrodes’ roles in the analysis of NTs are discussed. Furthermore, other methods for detecting NTs include optical and microdialysis methods. Finally, we show the advantages and disadvantages of different techniques and conclude remarks with future perspectives.
Original languageEnglish
JournalACS Nanoscience Au
Early online date28 Oct 2022
DOIs
Publication statusFirst published - 28 Oct 2022

Keywords

  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences
  • General Environmental Science
  • physiological system
  • conducting polymers
  • neurotransmitters
  • Electrochemical sensors
  • impedance technique
  • electrochemical detection
  • metal nanoparticles
  • dopamine
  • voltammetry technique

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