Temporal changes in the concentrations of plant-available phosphorus (P) in soil (Olsen-P), total soil-P and P activation coefficient (the ratio of Olsen-P to residual-P (i.e. an approximation to total-P)) were measured in plots that received consistent inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium plus organic fertilizers annually. Maize and winter wheat crops were grown in rotation for 24 years. Olsen-P and P activation coefficient declined significantly in the earlier years (< 12 years) for treatments that did not include any P fertilizer, and increased over the same period for the P-fertilized treatments. The rates of change in the Olsen-P and P activation coefficient values were positively related to P balance. In the later years, the Olsen-P and P activation coefficient plateau values were positively related to the P balance.
- Loess soil
- Phosphorus activation coefficient
- Wheat-maize rotation