Observations were made on a pig herd where sow service in lactation had been practised for 2 years. Sows and their litters were grouped and a boar later introduced. Of the 49% of sows mated in lactation 78% conceived. Sow and litter data were subjected to multiple regression analyses which indicated that lactational oestrus was more likely to occur for sows farrowing at the end of the calendar year, and for sows with smaller litter sizes. Sows mated in lactation showed a smaller weight change from the end of the previous pregnancy to weaning than those first showing oestrus after weaning. It is suggested that these weight changes in lactation and the seasonal relationship to lactation oestrus may be related to weight gain achieved by the sow in the previous pregnancy. Sows mated early in lactation had piglets with lower weaning weights and sows mated in late lactation had greater weaning weights than piglets whose dams showed oestrus after weaning.