Stereological assessment of sexual dimorphism in the rat liver reveals differences in hepatocytes and Kupffer cells but not hepatic stellate cells

R Marcos, C Lopes, F Malhao, C Correia-Gomes, S Fonseca, M Lima, R Gebhardt, E Rocha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

There is long-standing evidence that male and female rat livers differ in enzyme activity. More recently, differences in gene expression profiling have also been found to exist; however, it is still unclear whether there is morphological expression of male/female differences in the normal liver. Such differences could help to explain features seen at the pathological level, such as the greater regenerative potential generally attributed to the female liver. In this paper, hepatocytes (HEP), Kupffer cells (KC) and hepatic stellate cells (HSC) of male and female rats were examined to investigate hypothesised differences in number, volume and spatial co-localisation of these cell types. Immunohistochemistry and design-based stereology were used to estimate total numbers, numbers per gram and mean cell volumes. The position of HSC within lobules (periportal vs. centrilobular) and their spatial proximity to KC was also assessed. In addition, flow cytometry was used to investigate the liver ploidy. In the case of HEP and KC, differences in the measured cell parameters were observed between male and female specimens; however, no such differences were detected for HSC. Female samples contained a higher number of HEP per gram, with more binucleate cells. The HEP nuclei were smaller in females, which was coincident with more abundant diploid particles in these animals. The female liver also had a greater number of KC per gram, with a lower percentage of KC in the vicinity of HSC compared with males. In this study, we document hitherto unknown morphological sexual dimorphism in the rat liver, namely in HEP and KC. These differences may account for the higher regenerative potential of the female liver and lend weight to the argument for considering the rat liver as a sexually dimorphic organ. © 2016 Anatomical Society.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)996 - 1005
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Anatomy
Volume228
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusFirst published - 2016

Fingerprint

Hepatic Stellate Cells
Kupffer Cells
Sex Characteristics
Hepatocytes
Liver
Erythrocyte Indices
Ploidies
Gene Expression Profiling
Diploidy
Flow Cytometry
Immunohistochemistry
Weights and Measures

Keywords

  • Dimorphism
  • Hepatic stellate cells
  • Hepatocytes
  • Kupffer cells
  • Liver
  • Stereology

Cite this

Marcos, R ; Lopes, C ; Malhao, F ; Correia-Gomes, C ; Fonseca, S ; Lima, M ; Gebhardt, R ; Rocha, E. / Stereological assessment of sexual dimorphism in the rat liver reveals differences in hepatocytes and Kupffer cells but not hepatic stellate cells. In: Journal of Anatomy. 2016 ; Vol. 228, No. 6. pp. 996 - 1005.
@article{a7596c1bd39946988050688b04132f5a,
title = "Stereological assessment of sexual dimorphism in the rat liver reveals differences in hepatocytes and Kupffer cells but not hepatic stellate cells",
abstract = "There is long-standing evidence that male and female rat livers differ in enzyme activity. More recently, differences in gene expression profiling have also been found to exist; however, it is still unclear whether there is morphological expression of male/female differences in the normal liver. Such differences could help to explain features seen at the pathological level, such as the greater regenerative potential generally attributed to the female liver. In this paper, hepatocytes (HEP), Kupffer cells (KC) and hepatic stellate cells (HSC) of male and female rats were examined to investigate hypothesised differences in number, volume and spatial co-localisation of these cell types. Immunohistochemistry and design-based stereology were used to estimate total numbers, numbers per gram and mean cell volumes. The position of HSC within lobules (periportal vs. centrilobular) and their spatial proximity to KC was also assessed. In addition, flow cytometry was used to investigate the liver ploidy. In the case of HEP and KC, differences in the measured cell parameters were observed between male and female specimens; however, no such differences were detected for HSC. Female samples contained a higher number of HEP per gram, with more binucleate cells. The HEP nuclei were smaller in females, which was coincident with more abundant diploid particles in these animals. The female liver also had a greater number of KC per gram, with a lower percentage of KC in the vicinity of HSC compared with males. In this study, we document hitherto unknown morphological sexual dimorphism in the rat liver, namely in HEP and KC. These differences may account for the higher regenerative potential of the female liver and lend weight to the argument for considering the rat liver as a sexually dimorphic organ. {\circledC} 2016 Anatomical Society.",
keywords = "Dimorphism, Hepatic stellate cells, Hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, Liver, Stereology",
author = "R Marcos and C Lopes and F Malhao and C Correia-Gomes and S Fonseca and M Lima and R Gebhardt and E Rocha",
year = "2016",
doi = "10.1111/joa.12448",
language = "English",
volume = "228",
pages = "996 -- 1005",
journal = "Journal of Anatomy",
issn = "0021-8782",
publisher = "Wiley Blackwell",
number = "6",

}

Marcos, R, Lopes, C, Malhao, F, Correia-Gomes, C, Fonseca, S, Lima, M, Gebhardt, R & Rocha, E 2016, 'Stereological assessment of sexual dimorphism in the rat liver reveals differences in hepatocytes and Kupffer cells but not hepatic stellate cells', Journal of Anatomy, vol. 228, no. 6, pp. 996 - 1005. https://doi.org/10.1111/joa.12448

Stereological assessment of sexual dimorphism in the rat liver reveals differences in hepatocytes and Kupffer cells but not hepatic stellate cells. / Marcos, R; Lopes, C; Malhao, F; Correia-Gomes, C; Fonseca, S; Lima, M; Gebhardt, R; Rocha, E.

In: Journal of Anatomy, Vol. 228, No. 6, 2016, p. 996 - 1005.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Stereological assessment of sexual dimorphism in the rat liver reveals differences in hepatocytes and Kupffer cells but not hepatic stellate cells

AU - Marcos, R

AU - Lopes, C

AU - Malhao, F

AU - Correia-Gomes, C

AU - Fonseca, S

AU - Lima, M

AU - Gebhardt, R

AU - Rocha, E

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - There is long-standing evidence that male and female rat livers differ in enzyme activity. More recently, differences in gene expression profiling have also been found to exist; however, it is still unclear whether there is morphological expression of male/female differences in the normal liver. Such differences could help to explain features seen at the pathological level, such as the greater regenerative potential generally attributed to the female liver. In this paper, hepatocytes (HEP), Kupffer cells (KC) and hepatic stellate cells (HSC) of male and female rats were examined to investigate hypothesised differences in number, volume and spatial co-localisation of these cell types. Immunohistochemistry and design-based stereology were used to estimate total numbers, numbers per gram and mean cell volumes. The position of HSC within lobules (periportal vs. centrilobular) and their spatial proximity to KC was also assessed. In addition, flow cytometry was used to investigate the liver ploidy. In the case of HEP and KC, differences in the measured cell parameters were observed between male and female specimens; however, no such differences were detected for HSC. Female samples contained a higher number of HEP per gram, with more binucleate cells. The HEP nuclei were smaller in females, which was coincident with more abundant diploid particles in these animals. The female liver also had a greater number of KC per gram, with a lower percentage of KC in the vicinity of HSC compared with males. In this study, we document hitherto unknown morphological sexual dimorphism in the rat liver, namely in HEP and KC. These differences may account for the higher regenerative potential of the female liver and lend weight to the argument for considering the rat liver as a sexually dimorphic organ. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

AB - There is long-standing evidence that male and female rat livers differ in enzyme activity. More recently, differences in gene expression profiling have also been found to exist; however, it is still unclear whether there is morphological expression of male/female differences in the normal liver. Such differences could help to explain features seen at the pathological level, such as the greater regenerative potential generally attributed to the female liver. In this paper, hepatocytes (HEP), Kupffer cells (KC) and hepatic stellate cells (HSC) of male and female rats were examined to investigate hypothesised differences in number, volume and spatial co-localisation of these cell types. Immunohistochemistry and design-based stereology were used to estimate total numbers, numbers per gram and mean cell volumes. The position of HSC within lobules (periportal vs. centrilobular) and their spatial proximity to KC was also assessed. In addition, flow cytometry was used to investigate the liver ploidy. In the case of HEP and KC, differences in the measured cell parameters were observed between male and female specimens; however, no such differences were detected for HSC. Female samples contained a higher number of HEP per gram, with more binucleate cells. The HEP nuclei were smaller in females, which was coincident with more abundant diploid particles in these animals. The female liver also had a greater number of KC per gram, with a lower percentage of KC in the vicinity of HSC compared with males. In this study, we document hitherto unknown morphological sexual dimorphism in the rat liver, namely in HEP and KC. These differences may account for the higher regenerative potential of the female liver and lend weight to the argument for considering the rat liver as a sexually dimorphic organ. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

KW - Dimorphism

KW - Hepatic stellate cells

KW - Hepatocytes

KW - Kupffer cells

KW - Liver

KW - Stereology

U2 - 10.1111/joa.12448

DO - 10.1111/joa.12448

M3 - Article

VL - 228

SP - 996

EP - 1005

JO - Journal of Anatomy

JF - Journal of Anatomy

SN - 0021-8782

IS - 6

ER -