Tail amputation and traumatic neuroma development in neonatal pigs is not associated with long-term changes in peripheral and spinal nociceptive processing

DA Sandercock*, Jennifer Coe, Sionagh Smith, Pierpaolo Di Giminiani, SA Edwards

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to conferencePoster

Abstract

Aim of Investigation: Concerns exist over the long term consequences for tail stump pain experienced by piglets after tail docking (amputation of approximately two-thirds of the tail), especially in relation to traumatic neuroma development in caudal nerves after docking injury. Traumatic neuroma formation may cause detrimental sensory changes in the tail due to altered spinal and peripheral axonal excitability leading to abnormal sensation or pain. The aim of this investigation was to characterize traumatic neuroma development by histopathological assessment at time intervals up to 16 weeks after tail docking and to measure, in caudal dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord neurons, the expression of key neuropeptides associated with (i) peripheral nerve regeneration: activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3), (ii) inflammatory pain: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and (iii) the maintenance of chronic pain: N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) ionotropic glutamate receptor subtype 2B (GRIN2B) at the same time points after tail docking injury. Methods: Thirty-two female piglets (Landrace/Large White x synthetic sireline) were used (16 docked/16 sham-docked). Piglets were tail docked on post-natal day 3 using a gas-heated docking iron. Equivalent sham-docked piglets served as intact controls. Pigs were euthanized by barbiturate overdose at 1, 4, 8 and 16 weeks after sham/tail docking. Tail stumps (2 cm) were collected post-mortem for histopathological assessment. Caudal dorsal root ganglia (Ca1-Ca4+) and associated spinal cord were collected for gene expression analysis by real-time quantitative PCR of mRNA. Results: Non-specific epidermal and dermal changes associated with healing were observed in the distal tail stump after amputation. Mild inflammation, ulceration and oedema were present at 1 week. Traumatic neuroma development in caudal peripheral nerves was a consistently observed feature from 4 weeks after amputation. Neuroma axonal dispersion in the distal tail stump was still on-going 16 weeks after amputation. ATF-3 mRNA was significantly (P<0.05) upregulated in DRG neurons up to 8 weeks after tail amputation, but did not differ at 16 weeks compared with sham controls. Both CGRP and GRIN2B mRNA expression was significantly (P<0.05) upregulated 1 week after tail amputation in caudal spinal cord neurons but were not significantly different from sham-tail amputation pigs thereafter. Conclusions: Histopathological lesions that occurred shortly after tail amputation (beyond 1 week) were not likely to induce or maintain pain. The effects of tail docking on peripheral nerve axonal proliferation and dispersion were relatively short-lived and, although still present, were attenuated by 16 weeks after tail amputation injury. Changes in peripheral and spinal nociceptive processing associated with possible inflammatory and chronic pain appeared to resolve by 4 weeks after tail amputation injury. Acknowledgements: BBSRC/DEFRA (funded as part of the FareWellDock project under the ANIWHA ERA-Net Initiative).
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPrint publication - 26 Sep 2016
Event16th World Congress of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) 2016 - Pacifico Convention Center, Yokohama, Japan
Duration: 26 Sep 201630 Sep 2016
https://www.iasp-pain.org/Yokohama16/

Conference

Conference16th World Congress of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) 2016
CountryJapan
CityYokohama
Period26/09/1630/09/16
Internet address

Fingerprint

Traumatic Amputation
Neuroma
Tail
Swine
Amputation
Peripheral Nerves
Pain
Spinal Cord
Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide
Wounds and Injuries
Spinal Ganglia
Neurons
Chronic Pain
Messenger RNA
Activating Transcription Factor 3
Amputation Stumps

Keywords

  • Tail amputation
  • Traumatic neuroma
  • Pig production
  • Pig welfare
  • Painful procedures
  • Tail docking
  • Spinal cord
  • Dorsal root ganglia
  • Peripheral nerve injury
  • Pain
  • Neuropathic pain

Cite this

Sandercock, DA., Coe, J., Smith, S., Di Giminiani, P., & Edwards, SA. (2016). Tail amputation and traumatic neuroma development in neonatal pigs is not associated with long-term changes in peripheral and spinal nociceptive processing. Poster session presented at 16th World Congress of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) 2016, Yokohama, Japan.
Sandercock, DA ; Coe, Jennifer ; Smith, Sionagh ; Di Giminiani, Pierpaolo ; Edwards, SA. / Tail amputation and traumatic neuroma development in neonatal pigs is not associated with long-term changes in peripheral and spinal nociceptive processing. Poster session presented at 16th World Congress of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) 2016, Yokohama, Japan.
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title = "Tail amputation and traumatic neuroma development in neonatal pigs is not associated with long-term changes in peripheral and spinal nociceptive processing",
abstract = "Aim of Investigation: Concerns exist over the long term consequences for tail stump pain experienced by piglets after tail docking (amputation of approximately two-thirds of the tail), especially in relation to traumatic neuroma development in caudal nerves after docking injury. Traumatic neuroma formation may cause detrimental sensory changes in the tail due to altered spinal and peripheral axonal excitability leading to abnormal sensation or pain. The aim of this investigation was to characterize traumatic neuroma development by histopathological assessment at time intervals up to 16 weeks after tail docking and to measure, in caudal dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord neurons, the expression of key neuropeptides associated with (i) peripheral nerve regeneration: activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3), (ii) inflammatory pain: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and (iii) the maintenance of chronic pain: N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) ionotropic glutamate receptor subtype 2B (GRIN2B) at the same time points after tail docking injury. Methods: Thirty-two female piglets (Landrace/Large White x synthetic sireline) were used (16 docked/16 sham-docked). Piglets were tail docked on post-natal day 3 using a gas-heated docking iron. Equivalent sham-docked piglets served as intact controls. Pigs were euthanized by barbiturate overdose at 1, 4, 8 and 16 weeks after sham/tail docking. Tail stumps (2 cm) were collected post-mortem for histopathological assessment. Caudal dorsal root ganglia (Ca1-Ca4+) and associated spinal cord were collected for gene expression analysis by real-time quantitative PCR of mRNA. Results: Non-specific epidermal and dermal changes associated with healing were observed in the distal tail stump after amputation. Mild inflammation, ulceration and oedema were present at 1 week. Traumatic neuroma development in caudal peripheral nerves was a consistently observed feature from 4 weeks after amputation. Neuroma axonal dispersion in the distal tail stump was still on-going 16 weeks after amputation. ATF-3 mRNA was significantly (P<0.05) upregulated in DRG neurons up to 8 weeks after tail amputation, but did not differ at 16 weeks compared with sham controls. Both CGRP and GRIN2B mRNA expression was significantly (P<0.05) upregulated 1 week after tail amputation in caudal spinal cord neurons but were not significantly different from sham-tail amputation pigs thereafter. Conclusions: Histopathological lesions that occurred shortly after tail amputation (beyond 1 week) were not likely to induce or maintain pain. The effects of tail docking on peripheral nerve axonal proliferation and dispersion were relatively short-lived and, although still present, were attenuated by 16 weeks after tail amputation injury. Changes in peripheral and spinal nociceptive processing associated with possible inflammatory and chronic pain appeared to resolve by 4 weeks after tail amputation injury. Acknowledgements: BBSRC/DEFRA (funded as part of the FareWellDock project under the ANIWHA ERA-Net Initiative).",
keywords = "Tail amputation, Traumatic neuroma, Pig production, Pig welfare, Painful procedures, Tail docking, Spinal cord, Dorsal root ganglia, Peripheral nerve injury, Pain, Neuropathic pain",
author = "DA Sandercock and Jennifer Coe and Sionagh Smith and {Di Giminiani}, Pierpaolo and SA Edwards",
year = "2016",
month = "9",
day = "26",
language = "English",
note = "16th World Congress of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) 2016 ; Conference date: 26-09-2016 Through 30-09-2016",
url = "https://www.iasp-pain.org/Yokohama16/",

}

Sandercock, DA, Coe, J, Smith, S, Di Giminiani, P & Edwards, SA 2016, 'Tail amputation and traumatic neuroma development in neonatal pigs is not associated with long-term changes in peripheral and spinal nociceptive processing', 16th World Congress of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) 2016, Yokohama, Japan, 26/09/16 - 30/09/16.

Tail amputation and traumatic neuroma development in neonatal pigs is not associated with long-term changes in peripheral and spinal nociceptive processing. / Sandercock, DA; Coe, Jennifer; Smith, Sionagh; Di Giminiani, Pierpaolo; Edwards, SA.

2016. Poster session presented at 16th World Congress of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) 2016, Yokohama, Japan.

Research output: Contribution to conferencePoster

TY - CONF

T1 - Tail amputation and traumatic neuroma development in neonatal pigs is not associated with long-term changes in peripheral and spinal nociceptive processing

AU - Sandercock, DA

AU - Coe, Jennifer

AU - Smith, Sionagh

AU - Di Giminiani, Pierpaolo

AU - Edwards, SA

PY - 2016/9/26

Y1 - 2016/9/26

N2 - Aim of Investigation: Concerns exist over the long term consequences for tail stump pain experienced by piglets after tail docking (amputation of approximately two-thirds of the tail), especially in relation to traumatic neuroma development in caudal nerves after docking injury. Traumatic neuroma formation may cause detrimental sensory changes in the tail due to altered spinal and peripheral axonal excitability leading to abnormal sensation or pain. The aim of this investigation was to characterize traumatic neuroma development by histopathological assessment at time intervals up to 16 weeks after tail docking and to measure, in caudal dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord neurons, the expression of key neuropeptides associated with (i) peripheral nerve regeneration: activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3), (ii) inflammatory pain: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and (iii) the maintenance of chronic pain: N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) ionotropic glutamate receptor subtype 2B (GRIN2B) at the same time points after tail docking injury. Methods: Thirty-two female piglets (Landrace/Large White x synthetic sireline) were used (16 docked/16 sham-docked). Piglets were tail docked on post-natal day 3 using a gas-heated docking iron. Equivalent sham-docked piglets served as intact controls. Pigs were euthanized by barbiturate overdose at 1, 4, 8 and 16 weeks after sham/tail docking. Tail stumps (2 cm) were collected post-mortem for histopathological assessment. Caudal dorsal root ganglia (Ca1-Ca4+) and associated spinal cord were collected for gene expression analysis by real-time quantitative PCR of mRNA. Results: Non-specific epidermal and dermal changes associated with healing were observed in the distal tail stump after amputation. Mild inflammation, ulceration and oedema were present at 1 week. Traumatic neuroma development in caudal peripheral nerves was a consistently observed feature from 4 weeks after amputation. Neuroma axonal dispersion in the distal tail stump was still on-going 16 weeks after amputation. ATF-3 mRNA was significantly (P<0.05) upregulated in DRG neurons up to 8 weeks after tail amputation, but did not differ at 16 weeks compared with sham controls. Both CGRP and GRIN2B mRNA expression was significantly (P<0.05) upregulated 1 week after tail amputation in caudal spinal cord neurons but were not significantly different from sham-tail amputation pigs thereafter. Conclusions: Histopathological lesions that occurred shortly after tail amputation (beyond 1 week) were not likely to induce or maintain pain. The effects of tail docking on peripheral nerve axonal proliferation and dispersion were relatively short-lived and, although still present, were attenuated by 16 weeks after tail amputation injury. Changes in peripheral and spinal nociceptive processing associated with possible inflammatory and chronic pain appeared to resolve by 4 weeks after tail amputation injury. Acknowledgements: BBSRC/DEFRA (funded as part of the FareWellDock project under the ANIWHA ERA-Net Initiative).

AB - Aim of Investigation: Concerns exist over the long term consequences for tail stump pain experienced by piglets after tail docking (amputation of approximately two-thirds of the tail), especially in relation to traumatic neuroma development in caudal nerves after docking injury. Traumatic neuroma formation may cause detrimental sensory changes in the tail due to altered spinal and peripheral axonal excitability leading to abnormal sensation or pain. The aim of this investigation was to characterize traumatic neuroma development by histopathological assessment at time intervals up to 16 weeks after tail docking and to measure, in caudal dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord neurons, the expression of key neuropeptides associated with (i) peripheral nerve regeneration: activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3), (ii) inflammatory pain: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and (iii) the maintenance of chronic pain: N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) ionotropic glutamate receptor subtype 2B (GRIN2B) at the same time points after tail docking injury. Methods: Thirty-two female piglets (Landrace/Large White x synthetic sireline) were used (16 docked/16 sham-docked). Piglets were tail docked on post-natal day 3 using a gas-heated docking iron. Equivalent sham-docked piglets served as intact controls. Pigs were euthanized by barbiturate overdose at 1, 4, 8 and 16 weeks after sham/tail docking. Tail stumps (2 cm) were collected post-mortem for histopathological assessment. Caudal dorsal root ganglia (Ca1-Ca4+) and associated spinal cord were collected for gene expression analysis by real-time quantitative PCR of mRNA. Results: Non-specific epidermal and dermal changes associated with healing were observed in the distal tail stump after amputation. Mild inflammation, ulceration and oedema were present at 1 week. Traumatic neuroma development in caudal peripheral nerves was a consistently observed feature from 4 weeks after amputation. Neuroma axonal dispersion in the distal tail stump was still on-going 16 weeks after amputation. ATF-3 mRNA was significantly (P<0.05) upregulated in DRG neurons up to 8 weeks after tail amputation, but did not differ at 16 weeks compared with sham controls. Both CGRP and GRIN2B mRNA expression was significantly (P<0.05) upregulated 1 week after tail amputation in caudal spinal cord neurons but were not significantly different from sham-tail amputation pigs thereafter. Conclusions: Histopathological lesions that occurred shortly after tail amputation (beyond 1 week) were not likely to induce or maintain pain. The effects of tail docking on peripheral nerve axonal proliferation and dispersion were relatively short-lived and, although still present, were attenuated by 16 weeks after tail amputation injury. Changes in peripheral and spinal nociceptive processing associated with possible inflammatory and chronic pain appeared to resolve by 4 weeks after tail amputation injury. Acknowledgements: BBSRC/DEFRA (funded as part of the FareWellDock project under the ANIWHA ERA-Net Initiative).

KW - Tail amputation

KW - Traumatic neuroma

KW - Pig production

KW - Pig welfare

KW - Painful procedures

KW - Tail docking

KW - Spinal cord

KW - Dorsal root ganglia

KW - Peripheral nerve injury

KW - Pain

KW - Neuropathic pain

M3 - Poster

ER -

Sandercock DA, Coe J, Smith S, Di Giminiani P, Edwards SA. Tail amputation and traumatic neuroma development in neonatal pigs is not associated with long-term changes in peripheral and spinal nociceptive processing. 2016. Poster session presented at 16th World Congress of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) 2016, Yokohama, Japan.