Smallholders in south-east Tanzania grow the groundnut Red Mwitunde (Arachis hypogaea ssp. hypogaea), a long-season variety with seed dormancy, although earlier maturing varieties with no seed dormancy (ssp. hypogaea and fastigiata) usually yielded better in trials, particularly when late sown. Small-seeded, short-season varieties established better in the field than Red Mwitunde and other large-seeded varieties, especially under moisture stress. Trials with selective fungicides to estimate yield losses from leafspots (mainly Cercosporidium personatum) and rust (Puccinia arachidis), jointly and separately, showed no consistent varietal differences.