The effect of tail-docking neonate piglets on ATF-3 and NR2B immunoreactivity in coccygeal dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord dorsal horn neurons: Preliminary data

DA Sandercock*, Ana Monteiro, Marian E Scott, Andrea M Nolan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Tail docking neonatal piglets remains a controversial animal welfare issue. Although banned in the UK, it is widely practiced in many countries as a safeguard against tail biting among pigs reared in intensive systems. Concerns exist whether tail docking can induce chronic pain in later life. This preliminary study examined the effects of partial tail amputation on activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a marker of peripheral nerve injury and regeneration and NMDA-glutamate receptor NR2B subunit which participates in the mediation of chronic pain.Procedures were performed according to the ethical guidelines for the study of experimental pain in animals. Six piglets (2–3 days old) were tail-docked (a portion of the tail amputated with sterile surgical cutters), six piglets (2–3 days old) were sham-docked. Three animals from each treatment were euthanized 7 and 56 days post-amputation. Coccygeal dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord were collected post-mortem for immunohistochemistry. ATF3 immunoreactivity (IR) was significantly increased (p <0.05) in the DRG neurons from tail-docked piglets 7 days after tail amputation, compared with sham-docked piglets. ATF3-IR was not different in sham and tail-docked piglets 56 days post amputation. NR2B-IR was significantly increased (p < 0.05) in dorsal horn neurons in tail-docked piglets compared with intact piglets 7 days after docking. There was no difference in NR2B-IR in neurons 56 days post amputation, compared with intact piglets.Increased ATF3 and NR2B-IR 7 days after tail-docking suggests that injury to the peripheral nerves in the tail was sufficient to trigger neuronal regeneration and altered dorsal horn signaling respectively, however the effects of tail-docking on neuronal regeneration and nociceptive signaling were relatively short lasting. Tail-docking neonatal piglets does not cause sustained changes in ATF3, which might suggest ongoing nerve fibre damage and NR2B which might be implicated in chronic pain.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)184-185
Number of pages2
JournalScandinavian Journal of Pain
Volume3
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPrint publication - 1 Jul 2012
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Posterior Horn Cells
Spinal Ganglia
Tail
Newborn Infant
Activating Transcription Factor 3
Amputation
Chronic Pain
Peripheral Nerve Injuries
Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn
Regeneration
Neurons
Animal Welfare
Nerve Regeneration
Glutamate Receptors
N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors
Nerve Fibers
Spinal Cord

Keywords

  • Tail docking
  • Tail amputation
  • Painful procedures
  • Piglets
  • ATF3
  • Activating Transcription Factor 3
  • GRIN2B
  • NMDA-glutamate receptor
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Dorsal root ganglia
  • Dorsal horn neurons
  • Spinal cord
  • Nociceptive signalling
  • Neuronal regeneration
  • Chronic pain

Cite this

@article{0b61518b399c4291b9f3f2b381a8299a,
title = "The effect of tail-docking neonate piglets on ATF-3 and NR2B immunoreactivity in coccygeal dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord dorsal horn neurons: Preliminary data",
abstract = "Tail docking neonatal piglets remains a controversial animal welfare issue. Although banned in the UK, it is widely practiced in many countries as a safeguard against tail biting among pigs reared in intensive systems. Concerns exist whether tail docking can induce chronic pain in later life. This preliminary study examined the effects of partial tail amputation on activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a marker of peripheral nerve injury and regeneration and NMDA-glutamate receptor NR2B subunit which participates in the mediation of chronic pain.Procedures were performed according to the ethical guidelines for the study of experimental pain in animals. Six piglets (2–3 days old) were tail-docked (a portion of the tail amputated with sterile surgical cutters), six piglets (2–3 days old) were sham-docked. Three animals from each treatment were euthanized 7 and 56 days post-amputation. Coccygeal dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord were collected post-mortem for immunohistochemistry. ATF3 immunoreactivity (IR) was significantly increased (p <0.05) in the DRG neurons from tail-docked piglets 7 days after tail amputation, compared with sham-docked piglets. ATF3-IR was not different in sham and tail-docked piglets 56 days post amputation. NR2B-IR was significantly increased (p < 0.05) in dorsal horn neurons in tail-docked piglets compared with intact piglets 7 days after docking. There was no difference in NR2B-IR in neurons 56 days post amputation, compared with intact piglets.Increased ATF3 and NR2B-IR 7 days after tail-docking suggests that injury to the peripheral nerves in the tail was sufficient to trigger neuronal regeneration and altered dorsal horn signaling respectively, however the effects of tail-docking on neuronal regeneration and nociceptive signaling were relatively short lasting. Tail-docking neonatal piglets does not cause sustained changes in ATF3, which might suggest ongoing nerve fibre damage and NR2B which might be implicated in chronic pain.",
keywords = "Tail docking, Tail amputation, Painful procedures, Piglets, ATF3, Activating Transcription Factor 3, GRIN2B, NMDA-glutamate receptor, Immunohistochemistry, Dorsal root ganglia, Dorsal horn neurons, Spinal cord, Nociceptive signalling, Neuronal regeneration, Chronic pain",
author = "DA Sandercock and Ana Monteiro and Scott, {Marian E} and Nolan, {Andrea M}",
year = "2012",
month = "7",
day = "1",
doi = "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjpain.2012.05.031",
language = "English",
volume = "3",
pages = "184--185",
journal = "Scandinavian Journal of Pain",
issn = "1877-8860",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "3",

}

The effect of tail-docking neonate piglets on ATF-3 and NR2B immunoreactivity in coccygeal dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord dorsal horn neurons: Preliminary data. / Sandercock, DA; Monteiro, Ana; Scott, Marian E; Nolan, Andrea M.

In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, Vol. 3, No. 3, 01.07.2012, p. 184-185.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The effect of tail-docking neonate piglets on ATF-3 and NR2B immunoreactivity in coccygeal dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord dorsal horn neurons: Preliminary data

AU - Sandercock, DA

AU - Monteiro, Ana

AU - Scott, Marian E

AU - Nolan, Andrea M

PY - 2012/7/1

Y1 - 2012/7/1

N2 - Tail docking neonatal piglets remains a controversial animal welfare issue. Although banned in the UK, it is widely practiced in many countries as a safeguard against tail biting among pigs reared in intensive systems. Concerns exist whether tail docking can induce chronic pain in later life. This preliminary study examined the effects of partial tail amputation on activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a marker of peripheral nerve injury and regeneration and NMDA-glutamate receptor NR2B subunit which participates in the mediation of chronic pain.Procedures were performed according to the ethical guidelines for the study of experimental pain in animals. Six piglets (2–3 days old) were tail-docked (a portion of the tail amputated with sterile surgical cutters), six piglets (2–3 days old) were sham-docked. Three animals from each treatment were euthanized 7 and 56 days post-amputation. Coccygeal dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord were collected post-mortem for immunohistochemistry. ATF3 immunoreactivity (IR) was significantly increased (p <0.05) in the DRG neurons from tail-docked piglets 7 days after tail amputation, compared with sham-docked piglets. ATF3-IR was not different in sham and tail-docked piglets 56 days post amputation. NR2B-IR was significantly increased (p < 0.05) in dorsal horn neurons in tail-docked piglets compared with intact piglets 7 days after docking. There was no difference in NR2B-IR in neurons 56 days post amputation, compared with intact piglets.Increased ATF3 and NR2B-IR 7 days after tail-docking suggests that injury to the peripheral nerves in the tail was sufficient to trigger neuronal regeneration and altered dorsal horn signaling respectively, however the effects of tail-docking on neuronal regeneration and nociceptive signaling were relatively short lasting. Tail-docking neonatal piglets does not cause sustained changes in ATF3, which might suggest ongoing nerve fibre damage and NR2B which might be implicated in chronic pain.

AB - Tail docking neonatal piglets remains a controversial animal welfare issue. Although banned in the UK, it is widely practiced in many countries as a safeguard against tail biting among pigs reared in intensive systems. Concerns exist whether tail docking can induce chronic pain in later life. This preliminary study examined the effects of partial tail amputation on activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a marker of peripheral nerve injury and regeneration and NMDA-glutamate receptor NR2B subunit which participates in the mediation of chronic pain.Procedures were performed according to the ethical guidelines for the study of experimental pain in animals. Six piglets (2–3 days old) were tail-docked (a portion of the tail amputated with sterile surgical cutters), six piglets (2–3 days old) were sham-docked. Three animals from each treatment were euthanized 7 and 56 days post-amputation. Coccygeal dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord were collected post-mortem for immunohistochemistry. ATF3 immunoreactivity (IR) was significantly increased (p <0.05) in the DRG neurons from tail-docked piglets 7 days after tail amputation, compared with sham-docked piglets. ATF3-IR was not different in sham and tail-docked piglets 56 days post amputation. NR2B-IR was significantly increased (p < 0.05) in dorsal horn neurons in tail-docked piglets compared with intact piglets 7 days after docking. There was no difference in NR2B-IR in neurons 56 days post amputation, compared with intact piglets.Increased ATF3 and NR2B-IR 7 days after tail-docking suggests that injury to the peripheral nerves in the tail was sufficient to trigger neuronal regeneration and altered dorsal horn signaling respectively, however the effects of tail-docking on neuronal regeneration and nociceptive signaling were relatively short lasting. Tail-docking neonatal piglets does not cause sustained changes in ATF3, which might suggest ongoing nerve fibre damage and NR2B which might be implicated in chronic pain.

KW - Tail docking

KW - Tail amputation

KW - Painful procedures

KW - Piglets

KW - ATF3

KW - Activating Transcription Factor 3

KW - GRIN2B

KW - NMDA-glutamate receptor

KW - Immunohistochemistry

KW - Dorsal root ganglia

KW - Dorsal horn neurons

KW - Spinal cord

KW - Nociceptive signalling

KW - Neuronal regeneration

KW - Chronic pain

U2 - https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjpain.2012.05.031

DO - https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjpain.2012.05.031

M3 - Article

VL - 3

SP - 184

EP - 185

JO - Scandinavian Journal of Pain

JF - Scandinavian Journal of Pain

SN - 1877-8860

IS - 3

ER -