Two trials involving housed cattle examined the effect of Co depletion and supplementation on immune status as assessed by the neutrophil function test which measures the ability of isolated neutrophils to kill the yeast Candida albicans. A third trial investigated the extent to which Co status influenced the severity of Ostertagia ostertagi infection. In the first two trials liveweight gains were unaffected until some 40-60 weeks on the low dietary Co intake despite very low serum vitamin B12 values being recorded after 10 weeks. However, the immune status as measured by the neutrophil function test was reduced within 10 weeks of commencing the low Co diet. On administration of Ostertagia ostertagi larvae, Co-depleted cattle showed a greater weight loss than Co-supplemented cattle but showed no difference in the length of the prepatent period, worm egg production or serum gastrin and pepsinogen concentrations. After anthelmintic treatment both groups showed a similar response. It is postulated that the lowered immune response of Co-depleted cattle resulted in the greater severity of the Ostertagia ostertagi infection.