Unreliable access to a sufficient quantity of nutritious food is a major cause of undernourishment and malnutrition and may lead to reduced worker capacity and low productivity in developing countries. This study examines the impact of micronutrient intake on the labour productivity of rice-producing households in Thailand in 2011. A semi-log wage equation and Cobb–Douglas production function are estimated using two-stage least squares and non-linear two-stage least squares methods, respectively. The results show that higher intakes of calcium, vitamin A and iron increase household earnings and farm output. However, calorie intake only contributes to a higher farm output. Enhancing micronutrient consumption is an investment for improving productivity.