Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most frequent complication during pregnancy. This complex disease is characterized by glucose intolerance and consequent hyperglycemia that begins or is first diagnosed in pregnancy, and affects almost 7% of pregnant women. Previous reports have shown that GDM is associated with increased pregnancy complications and might cause abnormal fetal development. At present, treatments are not suitable for the prevention and management of these patients. As an alternative therapeutic opportunity and a leading scientific technique, nanotechnology has helped enlighten the health of these affected women. Theranostic nanomaterials with unique properties and small sizes (at least <100 nm in one of their dimensions) have been recently engineered for clinics and pharmaceutics. Reducing materials to the nanoscale has successfully changed their properties and enabled them to uniquely interact with cell biomolecules. Several biosensing methods have been developed to monitor glucose levels in GDM patients. Moreover, cerium oxide nanoparticles (NPs), selenium NPs, polymeric NPs, and drug-loaded NPs loaded with therapeutic agents have been used for GDM treatment. Still, there are some challenges associated with the detection limits and toxicity of such nanomaterials. This preliminary review covers the aspects from a fast-developing field to generating nanomaterials and their applications in GDM diagnosis and treatment.
- Gestational diabetes mellitus