Thrombolytic Enzymes of Microbial Origin: A Review

Deepti Diwan, Zeba Usmani, Minaxi Sharma, James W. Nelson, Vijay Kumar Thakur, Graham Christie, Gustavo Molina, Vijai Kumar Gupta*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)
60 Downloads (Pure)


Enzyme therapies are attracting significant attention as thrombolytic drugs during the current scenario owing to their great affinity, specificity, catalytic activity, and stability. Among various sources, the application of microbial-derived thrombolytic and fibrinolytic enzymes to prevent and treat vascular occlusion is promising due to their advantageous cost–benefit ratio and large-scale production. Thrombotic complications such as stroke, myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, and peripheral occlusive diseases resulting from blood vessel blockage are the major cause of poor prognosis and mortality. Given the ability of microbial thrombolytic enzymes to dissolve blood clots and prevent any adverse effects, their use as a potential thrombolytic therapy has attracted great interest. A better understanding of the hemostasis and fibrinolytic system may aid in improving the efficacy and safety of this treatment approach over classical thrombolytic agents. Here, we concisely discuss the physiological mechanism of thrombus formation, thrombo-, and fibrinolysis, thrombolytic and fibrinolytic agents isolated from bacteria, fungi, and algae along with their mode of action and the potential application of microbial enzymes in thrombosis therapy.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere10468
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number19
Early online date28 Sept 2021
Publication statusFirst published - 28 Sept 2021


  • Fibrin
  • Fibrinogen
  • Hemostasis
  • Microbial enzymes
  • Thrombolytic therapy
  • Thrombosis


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