Waves of endemic foot-and-mouth disease in eastern Africa suggest feasibility of proactive vaccination approaches

Miriam Casey-Bryars, Richard Reeve, Umesh Bastola, Nick J. Knowles, Harriet Auty, Katarzyna Bachanek-Bankowska, Veronica L. Fowler, Robert Fyumagwa, Rudovick Kazwala, Tito Kibona, Alasdair King, Donald P. King, Felix Lankester, Anna B. Ludi, Ahmed Lugelo, Francois F. Maree, Deogratius Mshanga, Gloria Ndhlovu, Krupali Parekh, David J. PatonBrian Perry, Jemma Wadsworth, Satya Parida, Daniel T. Haydon, Thomas L. Marsh, Sarah Cleaveland, Tiziana Lembo

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Abstract

Livestock production in Africa is key to national economies, food security and rural livelihoods, and > 85% of livestock keepers live in extreme poverty. With poverty elimination central to the Sustainable Development Goals, livestock keepers are therefore critically important. Foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious livestock disease widespread in Africa that contributes to this poverty. Despite its US$2.3 billion impact, control of the disease is not prioritized: standard vaccination regimens are too costly, its impact on the poorest is underestimated, and its epidemiology is too weakly understood. Our integrated analysis in Tanzania shows that the disease is of high concern, reduces household budgets for human health, and has major impacts on milk production and draft power for crop production. Critically, foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in cattle are driven by livestock-related factors with a pattern of changing serotype dominance over time. Contrary to findings in southern Africa, we find no evidence of frequent infection from wildlife, with outbreaks in cattle sweeping slowly across the region through a sequence of dominant serotypes. This regularity suggests that timely identification of the epidemic serotype could allow proactive vaccination ahead of the wave of infection, mitigating impacts, and our preliminary matching work has identified potential vaccine candidates. This strategy is more realistic than wildlife–livestock separation or conventional foot-and-mouth disease vaccination approaches. Overall, we provide strong evidence for the feasibility of coordinated foot-and-mouth disease control as part of livestock development policies in eastern Africa, and our integrated socioeconomic, epidemiological, laboratory and modelling approach provides a framework for the study of other disease systems.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1449-1457
Number of pages9
JournalNature Ecology and Evolution
Volume2
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPrint publication - 6 Aug 2018

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foot and mouth disease
vaccination
foot-and-mouth disease
Eastern Africa
livestock
poverty
serotypes
disease control
family resource management
cattle
draft animals
livestock diseases
development policy
livestock production
livelihood
milk production
Southern Africa
sustainable development
Tanzania
food security

Keywords

  • Agroecology
  • Agriculture
  • developing world
  • Ecological epidemiology
  • Economics

Cite this

Casey-Bryars, Miriam ; Reeve, Richard ; Bastola, Umesh ; Knowles, Nick J. ; Auty, Harriet ; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna ; Fowler, Veronica L. ; Fyumagwa, Robert ; Kazwala, Rudovick ; Kibona, Tito ; King, Alasdair ; King, Donald P. ; Lankester, Felix ; Ludi, Anna B. ; Lugelo, Ahmed ; Maree, Francois F. ; Mshanga, Deogratius ; Ndhlovu, Gloria ; Parekh, Krupali ; Paton, David J. ; Perry, Brian ; Wadsworth, Jemma ; Parida, Satya ; Haydon, Daniel T. ; Marsh, Thomas L. ; Cleaveland, Sarah ; Lembo, Tiziana. / Waves of endemic foot-and-mouth disease in eastern Africa suggest feasibility of proactive vaccination approaches. In: Nature Ecology and Evolution. 2018 ; Vol. 2, No. 9. pp. 1449-1457.
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Casey-Bryars, M, Reeve, R, Bastola, U, Knowles, NJ, Auty, H, Bachanek-Bankowska, K, Fowler, VL, Fyumagwa, R, Kazwala, R, Kibona, T, King, A, King, DP, Lankester, F, Ludi, AB, Lugelo, A, Maree, FF, Mshanga, D, Ndhlovu, G, Parekh, K, Paton, DJ, Perry, B, Wadsworth, J, Parida, S, Haydon, DT, Marsh, TL, Cleaveland, S & Lembo, T 2018, 'Waves of endemic foot-and-mouth disease in eastern Africa suggest feasibility of proactive vaccination approaches', Nature Ecology and Evolution, vol. 2, no. 9, pp. 1449-1457. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-018-0636-x

Waves of endemic foot-and-mouth disease in eastern Africa suggest feasibility of proactive vaccination approaches. / Casey-Bryars, Miriam; Reeve, Richard; Bastola, Umesh; Knowles, Nick J.; Auty, Harriet; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Fowler, Veronica L.; Fyumagwa, Robert; Kazwala, Rudovick; Kibona, Tito; King, Alasdair; King, Donald P.; Lankester, Felix; Ludi, Anna B.; Lugelo, Ahmed; Maree, Francois F.; Mshanga, Deogratius; Ndhlovu, Gloria; Parekh, Krupali; Paton, David J.; Perry, Brian; Wadsworth, Jemma; Parida, Satya; Haydon, Daniel T.; Marsh, Thomas L.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Lembo, Tiziana.

In: Nature Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 2, No. 9, 06.08.2018, p. 1449-1457.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Waves of endemic foot-and-mouth disease in eastern Africa suggest feasibility of proactive vaccination approaches

AU - Casey-Bryars, Miriam

AU - Reeve, Richard

AU - Bastola, Umesh

AU - Knowles, Nick J.

AU - Auty, Harriet

AU - Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna

AU - Fowler, Veronica L.

AU - Fyumagwa, Robert

AU - Kazwala, Rudovick

AU - Kibona, Tito

AU - King, Alasdair

AU - King, Donald P.

AU - Lankester, Felix

AU - Ludi, Anna B.

AU - Lugelo, Ahmed

AU - Maree, Francois F.

AU - Mshanga, Deogratius

AU - Ndhlovu, Gloria

AU - Parekh, Krupali

AU - Paton, David J.

AU - Perry, Brian

AU - Wadsworth, Jemma

AU - Parida, Satya

AU - Haydon, Daniel T.

AU - Marsh, Thomas L.

AU - Cleaveland, Sarah

AU - Lembo, Tiziana

PY - 2018/8/6

Y1 - 2018/8/6

N2 - Livestock production in Africa is key to national economies, food security and rural livelihoods, and > 85% of livestock keepers live in extreme poverty. With poverty elimination central to the Sustainable Development Goals, livestock keepers are therefore critically important. Foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious livestock disease widespread in Africa that contributes to this poverty. Despite its US$2.3 billion impact, control of the disease is not prioritized: standard vaccination regimens are too costly, its impact on the poorest is underestimated, and its epidemiology is too weakly understood. Our integrated analysis in Tanzania shows that the disease is of high concern, reduces household budgets for human health, and has major impacts on milk production and draft power for crop production. Critically, foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in cattle are driven by livestock-related factors with a pattern of changing serotype dominance over time. Contrary to findings in southern Africa, we find no evidence of frequent infection from wildlife, with outbreaks in cattle sweeping slowly across the region through a sequence of dominant serotypes. This regularity suggests that timely identification of the epidemic serotype could allow proactive vaccination ahead of the wave of infection, mitigating impacts, and our preliminary matching work has identified potential vaccine candidates. This strategy is more realistic than wildlife–livestock separation or conventional foot-and-mouth disease vaccination approaches. Overall, we provide strong evidence for the feasibility of coordinated foot-and-mouth disease control as part of livestock development policies in eastern Africa, and our integrated socioeconomic, epidemiological, laboratory and modelling approach provides a framework for the study of other disease systems.

AB - Livestock production in Africa is key to national economies, food security and rural livelihoods, and > 85% of livestock keepers live in extreme poverty. With poverty elimination central to the Sustainable Development Goals, livestock keepers are therefore critically important. Foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious livestock disease widespread in Africa that contributes to this poverty. Despite its US$2.3 billion impact, control of the disease is not prioritized: standard vaccination regimens are too costly, its impact on the poorest is underestimated, and its epidemiology is too weakly understood. Our integrated analysis in Tanzania shows that the disease is of high concern, reduces household budgets for human health, and has major impacts on milk production and draft power for crop production. Critically, foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in cattle are driven by livestock-related factors with a pattern of changing serotype dominance over time. Contrary to findings in southern Africa, we find no evidence of frequent infection from wildlife, with outbreaks in cattle sweeping slowly across the region through a sequence of dominant serotypes. This regularity suggests that timely identification of the epidemic serotype could allow proactive vaccination ahead of the wave of infection, mitigating impacts, and our preliminary matching work has identified potential vaccine candidates. This strategy is more realistic than wildlife–livestock separation or conventional foot-and-mouth disease vaccination approaches. Overall, we provide strong evidence for the feasibility of coordinated foot-and-mouth disease control as part of livestock development policies in eastern Africa, and our integrated socioeconomic, epidemiological, laboratory and modelling approach provides a framework for the study of other disease systems.

KW - Agroecology

KW - Agriculture

KW - developing world

KW - Ecological epidemiology

KW - Economics

U2 - 10.1038/s41559-018-0636-x

DO - 10.1038/s41559-018-0636-x

M3 - Article

C2 - 30082738

VL - 2

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EP - 1457

JO - Nature Ecology and Evolution

JF - Nature Ecology and Evolution

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